Brand: ALLVERM ® 4% Oral Suspension
Company: ELANCO (NOVARTIS)
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- Flukes: Adult liver flukes Fasciola hepatica (only against chronic fasciolosis, not against acute fasciolosis)
- Tapeworms: Moniezia spp.
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label
- Worm dose: 1 mL product/8 kg bw (equivalent to 5.0 mg/kg ricobendazole)
- 16 kg: 2 ml product
- 24 kg: 3 ml product
- 32 kg: 4 ml product
- 40 kg: 5 ml product
- 48 kg: 6 ml product
- 56 kg: 7 ml product
- 64 kg: 8 ml product
- 72 kg: 9 ml product
- 80 kg: 10 ml product
- Fluke & worm dose (for chronic fasciolasis): 1.5 mL product/5.33 kg bw (equivalent to 7.5 mg/kg ricobendazole).
- Not recommended for the treatment of acute fascioliosis in sheep.
- 16 kg: 3 ml product
- 24 kg: 4.5 ml product
- 32 kg: 6 product
- 40 kg: 7.5 ml product
- 48 kg: 9 ml product
- 56 kg: 10.5 ml product
- 64 kg: 12 ml product
- 72 kg: 13.5 ml product
- and so on
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: 2400 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: n.a.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: UK 3 days.
- Milk for human consumption: not to be used in sheep producing milk for human consumption.
Risk of resistance? YES, resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to all benzimidazoles (incl. ricobendazole) in ruminants is a very serious and increasing problem wordlwide, particularly in sheep and goats, but also in cattle. The most affected worm species in sheep are: Haemonchus spp, Ostertagia spp /Teladorsagia spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Nematodirus spp, Chabertia ovina
Resistance of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, to albendazole (also to ricobendazole = albendazole sulfoxide) and triclabendazole has been already reported in several countries as well (e.g. Argentina, Australia, Ireland, The Netherlands, Spain, etc.). It is not as widespread and high as in gastrointestinal roundworms, but it will certainly strengthen and spread quickly unless measures are taken to delay it.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it can be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
- Macrocyclic lactones (e.g. abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin, etc.): only against gastrointestinal roundworms, ineffective against flukes or tapeworms. Resistance to macrocyclic lactones is also increasing and strengthening quickly in many countries.
- Levamisole: only against gastrointestinal roundworms, ineffective against flukes or tapeworms. Resistance to levamisole has been reported in most countries, but is usually less strong and frequent than to benzimidazoles.
- Monepantel: only against gastrointestinal roundworm species in sheep & goats in some countries (e.g. Australia, UK & EU, New Zealand). First cases of resistance reported in New Zealand in 2013. Ineffective against flukes or tapeworms.
- Salicylanilides (e.g. closantel, niclosamide, rafoxanide): only in some countries against liver flukes, certain gastrointestinal roundworm species or tapeworms. Resistance to closantel has been reported in some countries. Not available in all countries.
- Tetrahydropyrimidines (e.g. morantel, pyrantel): only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms, ineffective against flukes or tapeworms. Not available in some countries. Resistance to morantel has been reported in some countries.
- Clorsulon: only against liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica), ineffective against roundworms or tapeworms.
- Nitroxinil: only against liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) and a few gastrointestinal roundworms (e.g. Bunostomum spp, Haemonchus spp, Oesophagostomum spp). Not available in some countries. Ineffective against tapeworms.
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as drenches, or may not be effective against all the concerned parasites.
It is highly recommended to periodically check (e.g. every 2 years) the resistance status of each property performing appropriate tests (e.g. faecal egg counts) under supervision of a veterinary doctor. Such tests are now routinely available for most producers in developed countries.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used drench brands for livestock click here.
ALLVERM is a brand with generic ricobendazole marketed by NOVARTIS (since January 2015 aquired by ELANCO) in the UK.
All benzimidazoles are veteran anthelmintics, but ricobendazole together with albendazole are the two ones that are effective against all three major classes of parasitic worms: Roundworms (gastrointestinal and pulmonary), tapeworms, and flukes (only adults). Most other benzimidazoles are not effective against flukes, and the oldest ones are also ineffective against tapeworms. It also kills eggs of roundworms and flukes (ovicidal activity). As other benzimidazoles, albendazole has no efficacy whatsoever against external parasites (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc).
Ricobendazole is not effective against acute fasciolasis of sheep caused by massive infections with larvae of Fasciola hepatica migrating through the liver. The reason is that ricobendazole is not effective against larval stages of Fasciola hepatica.
As all benzimidazoles (as well as other anthelmintics such as levamisole, monepantel, and tetrahydropyrimidines), ricobendazole administered as a drench has no residual effect, i.e. it kills the parasites shortly after administration, but does not significantly protect the animals against re-infestation by infective stages in their environment.
A significant disadvantage of albendazole is that it can be teratogenic (other benzimidazoles too, e.g. ricobendazole, parbendazole and cambendazole), i.e. it can cause malformations in the embryos. Care must be taken with ewes not to exceed the recommended dose, particularly during the first month of pregnancy.
Ricobendazole is abundantly used as an injectable for livestock in numerous countries (e.g. in Latin America). Ricobendazole is significantly more soluble in water than albendazole, its parent molecule, which makes it possible to deliver it as an injectable. In fact, ricobendazole is considered as "the" injectable benzimidazole, because all other benzimidazoles are very poorly soluble in water and are not suitable for injection.
Unfortunately, resistance of several gastrointestinal roundworms to all benzimidazoles (including ricobendazole) is already very high and very frequent worldwide in sheep and goats, slightly lower in cattle, which has significantly reduced their usage in livestock. Nowadays more convenient pour-ons and injectables containing macrocyclic lactones (e.g. abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin) are often preferred over drenches. These compounds also ensure several weeks protection against re-infestation by several worm species, in contrast with all benzimidazoles that lack any residual effect.
In ruminants, reducing the amount of feed slows down the exit flow of the rumen and prolongs the time during which the active ingredient remains there and is absorbed. Consequently it is advisable to reduce the access of animals to feed (especially to fresh pasture, not to water) 24 hours before administration. For the same reason, it is better to keep the animals away from food for about 6 hours after drenching. However sick or weak animals should not be kept away from food and fasting animals should have access to water.
Thoroughly shaking suspensions before use is crucial for efficacy. If the active ingredient remains in the sediment, a few animals may get most of the active ingredient and will be overdosed, and the large majority will get almost only solvents and will be underdosed.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.