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Common name: DELTAMETHRIN

Type: pesticide
Chemical class: synthetic pyrethroid

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

Molecular structure of DELTAMETHRIN

 

 

 

 

  


EFFICACY AGAINST PARASITES

Type of action: Broad spectrum contact, non systemic ectoparasiticide: insecticide, acaricide, tickicide, louisicide, larvicide
Main veterinary parasites controlled: flies, ticks, mites, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, etc.

Efficacy against a specific parasite depends on the delivery form and on the dose administered.

Click here for general information on features and characteristics of PARASITICIDES.


DOSING

Dosing recommendations for antiparasitics depend on national regulations. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasiteCheck the labels of the products available in your country for specific information on approved indications.

The table below indicates some usual dosing recommendations for deltamethrin issued by manufacturers or documented in the scientific literature. They may not be approved in some countries.

In contrast with many synthetic pyrethroids (e.g. cypermethrin, permethrin) that consist in mixtures of various optic isomers, deltamethrin contains a single cis isomer. As a consequence the various products containing deltamethrin are equal regarding the isomer composition and therefore quite comparable regarding efficacy and safety.

As all synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin products are always used for topical administration, either as concentrates for dipping or spraying, or in ready-to-use products such as pour-ons for livestock and in a few collars and low cost topicals for pets such as shampoos, soaps, sprays, etc. Deltamethrin is used moderately in livestock and rather scarcely in dogs.

Deltamethrin (and many other synthetic pyrethroids) acts by contact (i.e. it is not systemic) and is effective against most external livestock and pet parasites (flies, ticks, mites, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, etc.) but is completely ineffective against internal parasites.

However, resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids is already very frequent worldwide and can be extremely high, particularly in cattle ticks, horn & buffalo flies, houseflies, red fowl mites, mosquitoes, fleas, etc.

Dosing recommendations for DELTAMETHRIN
DOGS
Delivery Parasites Dose (against deltamethrin-susceptible parasites)
Bath Fleas, ticks, lice, mites, etc. 12.5-50 ppm (=mg/L) in the wash, dep. on isomers & indications
CATS. Pyrethroids are mostly toxic to cats!
CATTLE
Delivery Parasites Dose (against deltamethrin-susceptible parasites)
Dip, spray Ticksflies, mites, lice, etc. 12.5-50 ppm (=mg/L) in the wash dep. on indications
Pour-on Ticksflies, mites, lice, etc. 0.75-2 mg/kg, dep. on indications
SHEEP & GOATS
Delivery Parasites  Dose (against deltamethrin-susceptible parasites)
Dip, spray Ticksflies, lice, mites, etc. 12.5-50 ppm (=mg/L) in the wash dep. on indications
Pour-on Ticksflies, lice, mites, etc. 0.75-2 mg/kg, dep. on indications
SWINE 
Delivery Parasites  Dose (against deltamethrin-susceptible parasites)
Spray Lice, mites 12.5-50 ppm (=mg/L) in the wash dep. on indications
HORSES
Delivery Parasites  Dose (against deltamethrin-susceptible parasites)
Pour-on Ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc. 0.75-2 mg/kg, dep. on indications
SOUTH AMERICAN CAMELIDS
Delivery Parasites  Dose (against deltamethrin-susceptible parasites)
Spray Ticks, flies, mites 12.5-50 ppm (=mg/L) in the wash dep. on indications

DISCLAIMER: Liability is denied for any possible damage or harm to persons, animals or any other goods that could follow the transmission or use of the information, data or recommendations in this site by any site visitor or third parties.


SAFETY

Oral LD50, rat, acute*:  135-5000 mg/kg, depending on the vehicle
Dermal LD50, rat, acute*: >2000 mg/kg
* These values refer to the active ingredient. Toxicity has to be determined for each formulation as well. Formulations are usually significantly less toxic than the active ingredients.

WARNING: Most synthetic pyrethroids can be toxic for cats!

MRL (maximum residue limit) set for animal tissues (either beef, mutton pork or chicken)*:

  • CODEX: Yes
  • EU: Yes
  • USA: Yes
  • AUS: Yes

* This information is an indicator of the acceptance of an active ingredient by the most influential regulatory bodies for use on livestock. MRL's for animal tissues may be set also for agricultural pesticides that are not approved for use on animals but are used on commodities fed to animals. A MRL may be also set in the form of an IMPORT TOLERANCE for active ingredients not approved in a particular country but approved for imported animal commodities.

Withholding periods for meat, milk, eggs, etc. depend on delivery form, dose and national regulations. Check the product label in your country.

Learn more about deltamethrin safety.

General information on the safety of veterinary antiparasitics is available in specific articles in this site (click to visit):

WARNING

Never use agricultural or hygiene products with this or any other active ingredient on livestock or pets, even if there are veterinary products with this same active ingredient approved for use on animals. The formulations for agricultural or hygiene use are different and may be toxic for livestock or pets.

It is obvious that veterinary products are not intended for and should never be used on humans!!!


MARKETING & USAGE

Decade of introduction: 1970
Introduced by: ROUSSEL UCLAF (→ INTERVET→ MERCK AH)
Some original brands: BUTOX
Patent: Expired (particular formulations may be still patent-protected)

Use on LIVESTOCK: Yes, abundant
Use on HORSES: Yes, moderate
Use on
DOGS and CATS: Yes, scarce
Main delivery forms

Use in human medicine: No
Use in
public/domestic hygiene: Yes
Use in
agriculture: Yes
Generics available: 
Yes, a few


PARASITE RESISTANCE

On livestock & horses: Yes, as for all synthetic pyrethroids: very frequent worldwide in such species as cattle ticks (Boophilus spp), horn flies (Haematobia irritans), sheep lice (Damalinia ovis), poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), houseflies (Musca domestica), mosquitoes.
On pets: Yes, quite frequent worldwide in dog and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides spp).

Learn more about parasite resistance and how it develops.


SPECIFIC FEATURES

Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid with a spectrum of activity similar to cypermethrin. It has been vastly used on livestock, but seldom on pets.

In contrast with other synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin is not a mixture of various optic isomers, but is to 100% a cis isomer.

Although patent has expired long ago, there are only a few generic veterinary products available, probably because cypermethrin lost its patent protection earlier than deltamethrin and because cypermethrin is good enough.

Efficacy of deltamethrin

Deltamethrin is an ectoparasiticide, i.e. active only against external parasites such as flies, ticks, mites, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, etc. It can be considered as a broad-spectrum generalist, i.e. quite good against almost all insects, ticks and mites, but not outstanding against a particular parasite. It is certainly less efficient against multi-host ticks (e.g. Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor, etc,) than several other tickicides (e.g. amitraz, chlorfenvinphos, coumaphos, flumethrin, etc.).

As most synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin is a mediocre larvicide, i.e. it is often not a good option for the large-scale prevention of cutaneous myiases (e.g. screwworms, blowfly strike, etc.) with sprays, pour-ons, etc.

Deltamethrin, as well as many other synthetic pyrethroids has a significant repellent effect on certain insects and ticks, which strongly depends on the delivery form and the dose administered.

However, resistance to deltamethrin is widespread and can be very highin cattle ticks (Boophilus spp), horn flies (Haematobia irritans), red poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), sheep lice (Damalinia ovis), houseflies (Musca domestica), dog and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides spp) and mosquitoes. As a consequence, products with deltamethrin are already totally useless against these important parasites in many places. The same applies to all other synthetic pyrethroids (e.g. cypermethrin, flumethrin, permethrin, etc.). And this is true for whatever delivery form: dipping, spraying, pour-ons, ear-tags, shampoos, soaps, etc.

Pharmacokinetics of deltamethrin

Topically administered deltamethrin remains mostly on the hair-coat of the treated animals and is very poorly absorbed through the skin. In contrast with natural pyrethrins and older synthetic pyrethroids deltamethrin is quite resistant to UV-light, which allows a residual effect between 5 and 10 days for most sprays and dips.

Treated animals can ingest deltamethrin through licking or grooming. A large amount of it is excreted unchanged through the feces. The absorbed deltamethrin is quickly metabolized in the liver to non-toxic metabolites that are excreted through urine. This is done by a specific enzyme called glucuronidase. However, cats lack this enzyme and cannot metabolize most synthetic pyrethroids. This is why most synthetic pyrethroids are toxic to cats.

As a general rule deltamethrin products are approved for use on dairy animals and on laying hens in many countries.

Mechanism of action of deltamethrin

Synthetic pyrethroids, including deltamethrin, have a similar mode of action as organochlorines. They act on the membrane of nerve cells blocking the closure of the ion gates of the sodium channel during re-polarization. This strongly disrupts the transmission of nervous impulses. At low concentrations insects suffer from hyperactivity. At high concentrations they are paralyzed and die.

Click here to view the list of all technical summaries of antiparasitic active ingredients in this site.

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