Common name: SPINOSAD

Type: Pesticide or veterinary medicine, depending on usage
Chemical class: spinosyn

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

Molecular structure of SPINOSAD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


EFFICACY AGAINST PARASITES

Type of action: Contact and systemic insecticide and acaricide
Main parasites controlled: fleas, licemitesflies, etc.

Efficacy against a specific parasite depends on the delivery form and on the dose administered. 

Click here for general information on features and characteristics of PARASITICIDES.


DOSING

Dosing recommendations for antiparasitics depend on national regulations. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasiteCheck the labels of the products available in your country for specific information on approved indications.

The table below indicates some usual dosing recommendations for spinosad issued by manufacturers or documented in the scientific literature. They may not be approved in some countries.

Spinosad is a natural insecticide and acaricide with topical and systemic effect (after oral administration). It is highly effective against fleas in pets (mainly in tablets), against a lice and blowfly strike (e.g. Lucilia spp) in sheep, and against poultry mites ( e.g. Dermanyssus gallinae, Ornithonyssus spp). It is not effective against internal parasites.

Dosing recommendations for SPINOSAD
DOGS
Delivery Parasites Dose (against spinosad-susceptible parasites)
Oral (tablets) Fleas 45-70 mg/kg; 4-5 weeks protection.
CATS
Delivery Parasites Dose (against spinosad-susceptible parasites)
Oral (tablets) Fleas 50-75 mg/kg; 4-5 weeks protection.
CATTLE
Delivery Parasites Dose (against spinosad-susceptible parasites)
Spray Cattle ticks 1500 ppm (=1500 mg/L); <90% control, residual effect <7 days.
Spray Lice 40 ppm (=40 mg/L); >95% control, residual effect ~7 weeks.
Pour-on Lice 2 mg/kg; >95% control, residual effect ~7 weeks.
SHEEP
Delivery Parasites Dose (against spinosad-susceptible parasites)
Spray Lice (Damalinia ovis) 20 ppm (=25 mg/L) in wash; 2-6 weeks off shears; replenishment at 40 ppm.
Dip Lice (Damalinia ovis) 10 ppm (=10 mg/L) in wash; 2-6 weeks off shears; replenishment at 15 ppm.
Jetting Lice (Damalinia ovis) 25 ppm (=25 mg/L) in wash; 6 weeks to 6 months off-shears
Jetting Blowfly strike 25 ppm (=mg/L) in wash. >6 weeks wool length; 4-6 weeks protection.
Pour-on Lice (Damalinia ovis) 8-15 mg/kg; 24 hours after shearing
Pour-on Lice (Damalinia ovis) 10-20 mg/kg; 6-12 months off-shears
POULTRY
Delivery Parasites Dose (against spinosad-susceptible parasites)
Spray Dermanyssus gallinae 2000-4000 ppm (= mg/L) in wash. ~0.4 L/animal; only for off-animal use (cages, floors, hiding places, etc.)
Spray Ornithonyssus spp 1035 ppm (=mg/L) in wash. ~0.4 L/animal; apply mainly around the vent.

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SAFETY

Oral LD50, rat, acute*:  >3600 mg/kg
Dermal LD50, rat, acute*: >5000 mg/kg
* These values refer to the active ingredient. Toxicity has to be determined for each formulation as well. Formulations are usually significantly less toxic than the active ingredients.

MRL (maximum residue limit) set for animal tissues (e.g. beef, mutton pork or chicken)*:

  • CODEX: Yes
  • EU: Yes
  • USA: Yes
  • AUS: Yes

* This information is an indicator of the acceptance of an active ingredient by the most influential regulatory bodies for use on livestock. MRL's for animal tissues may be set also for agricultural pesticides that are not approved for use on animals but are used on commodities fed to animals. A MRL may be also set in the form of an IMPORT TOLERANCE for active ingredients not approved in a particular country but approved for imported animal commodities.

Withholding periods for meat, milk, eggs, etc. depend on delivery form, dose and national regulations. Check the product label in your country.

Learn more about spinosad safety.

General safety information for antiparasitics is available in specific articles in this site (click to visit):

WARNING

Never use agricultural or hygiene products with this or any other active ingredient on livestock or pets, even if there are veterinary products with this same active ingredient approved for use on animals. The formulations for agricultural or hygiene use are different and may be toxic for livestock or pets.

It is obvious that veterinary products are not intended for and should never be used on humans!!!


MARKETING & USAGE

Decade of introduction: 1990
Introduced by: ELI-LILLY, ELANCO
Some original brands: COMFORTIS, TRIFEXIS, EXTINOSAD, ELECTOR
Patent: Expired (particular formulations may be still patent-protected)

Use in LIVESTOCK: Yes, still scarce
Use in HORSES: NO
Use in
DOGS and CATS: Yes, still scarce

Main delivery forms:

Use in human medicine: Yes
Use in
public/domestic hygiene: Yes
Use in
agriculture: Yes
Generics available: 
Yes


PARASITE RESISTANCE

In livestock: Yes, reported on houseflies (Musca domestica), so far only in laboratory studies.
In pets: No

Learn more about parasite resistance and how it develops.


SPECIFIC FEATURES

Spinosad, a mixture of spinosyn A and spinosyn D (ratio about 17:3), is a natural insecticide extracted from cultures of Saccharopolyspora spinosa, a soil bacterium.

Use in livestock is still scarce. It is available in a few countries for use in spraysdips and pour-ons in sheep against lice and blowfly strike, and in sprays for off-animal use in poultry facilities against the fowl mites (e.g. Dermanyssus gallinae). It is also  available as bait against houseflies (Musca domestica) and other nuisance flies. There are reports on good efficacy against cattle ticks (Boophilus microplus) but commercial products are not yet available for this indication.

It is also used in tablets and pills for oral administration to dogs against fleas.

It is also used in human medicines against lice (pediculosis).

Pharmacokinetics of spinosad

After oral administration, spinosad is quickly absorbed to blood. Maximum plasma levels are reached 2 to 4 hours after administration. Bioavailability is >70% and increases if administered together with food.

Spinosyn A and spinosyn D are vastly metabolized. Excretion is achieved by >80% through the feces. 

Mechanism of action of spinosad

The molecular mechanism of action of spinosad has not yet been completely elucidated. It acts on both GABA and nicotinic receptors of the nerve cell membranes of insects, but it targets different subunits than other known insecticides. The good news is that spinosad has no cross-resistance with other currently available chemical classes of insecticides.

Click here to view the list of all technical summaries of antiparasitic active ingredients in this site.

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