Common name: PYRIPROXYFEN

Type: pesticide
Other names: NYLAR
Chemical class: juvenile hormone analogue, insect development inhibitor

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

Molecular structure of PYRIPROXYFEN

 

 

 


EFFICACY AGAINST PARASITES

Type of action: contact and oral larvicide
Main veterinary parasites controlled: larvae of insects: flies, fleas.

Efficacy against a specific parasite depends on the delivery form and on the dose administered. 

Click here for general information on features and characteristics of PARASITICIDES.


DOSING

Dosing recommendations for antiparasitics depend on national regulations. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasiteCheck the labels of the products available in your country for specific information on approved indications.

The table below indicates some usual dosing recommendations for pyriproxyfen issued by manufacturers or documented in the scientific literature. They may not be approved in some countries.

Pyriproxyfen is a contact insect growth regulator used in a few products for flea control in dogs and cats, mainly spot-ons and low-cost sprays, shampoos, soaps, etc. It does not kill fleas, but interrupts their development. For this reason it is mostly used in combination with a flea adulticide (e.g. fipronil, imidacloprid, etc). It has no effect on ticks or mites. So far it is not used at all in livestock or horses.

Dosing recommendations for PYRIPROXYFEN
Delivery Parasites Dose (against pyriproxyfen-susceptible parasites)
DOGS
Topical (spot-on) Fleas 0.5-13.3 mg/kg, dep. on brand and animal weight
CATS
Topical (spot-on) Fleas 5-70 mg/kg, dep. on brand and animal weight

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SAFETY

Oral LD50, rat, acute*: >5000 mg/kg
Dermal LD50, rat, acute*: >2000 mg/kg
* These values refer to the active ingredient. Toxicity has to be determined for each formulation as well. Formulations are usually significantly less toxic than the active ingredients.

MRL (maximum residue limit): Not applicable: not approved for livestock
Withholding periods for meat, milk, eggs: Not applicable: not approved for livestock

General safety information for antiparasitics is available in specific articles in this site (click to visit):

WARNING

Never use agricultural or hygiene products with this or any other active ingredient on livestock or pets, even if there are veterinary products with this same active ingredient approved for use on animals. The formulations for agricultural or hygiene use are different and may be toxic for livestock or pets.

It is obvious that veterinary products are not intended for and should never be used on humans!!!


MARKETING & USAGE

Decade of introduction: 1980
Introduced by: SUMITOMO
Some original brands: SUMILARV
Patent: Expired (particular formulations may be still patent-protected)

Use in LIVESTOCK: No
Use in HORSES: NO
Use in
DOGS and CATS: Yes, moderate

Main delivery forms: 

Use in human medicine: No
Use in
public/domestic hygiene: Yes
Use in
agriculture: Yes
Generics available: 
Yes


PARASITE RESISTANCE

In livestock: Yes, in houseflies (Musca domestica).
In pets: No


SPECIFIC FEATURES

Pyriproxyfen is a Juvenile Hormone Analogue acting as an insect development inhibitor effective against numerous insect species, but with no effect whatsoever on ticks or mites. It only interferes with the molt from pupae to adults, i.e. it does not kill insect larvae and consequently it cannot be used against various myiases.

In dogs and cats it is exclusively used in numerous spot-ons (= squeeze-on = pipettes), as well as in shampoos, soaps, sprays, etc, alone or in combination with flea adulticides, since most flea adulticides have an insufficient impact on the developmental stages in the pets' environment.

In livestock it is not used on-animal but only for premise and environmental treatment against fly larvae.

Pharmacokinetics of pyriproxyfen

The dermal absorption of pyriproxyfen has not been studied. Dogs and cats can ingest topically administered pyriproxyfen through licking and grooming. After oral administration to rodents absorption into blood was slow and incomplete (< 50%). Highest concentrations were found in fat tissues. Excretion is fast, >90% within 48 hours, primarily in the feces, only about 10% in urine, mostly in the form of various metabolites.

Mechanism of action of pyriproxyfen

Pyriproxyfen and other Juvenile Hormone Analogs suppress or stimulate the expression of various genes involved in insect metamorphosis otherwise regulated by natural juvenile hormone. Depending on which gene is affected different biochemical and cellular effects will result. The bottom line is that development is disturbed and interrupted.

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