Common name: NITROXINIL

Other names: NITROXYNIL
Type: veterinary medecine
Chemical class: halogenated phenol

CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

Molecular structure of NITROXINIL 

 


EFFICACY AGAINST PARASITES

Type of action: Flukicide and nematicide anthelmintic, endoparasiticide
Main veterinary parasites controlled: liver flukes, a few roundworm (nematodes) species

Efficacy against a specific parasite depends on the delivery form and on the dose administered.

Click here for general information on features and characteristics of PARASITICIDES.


DOSING

Dosing recommendations for antiparasitics depend on national regulations. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasite. Check the labels of the products available in your country for specific information on approved indications.

The table below indicates some usual dosing recommendations for nitroxinil issued by manufacturers or documented in the scientific literature. They may not be approved in some countries.

Nitroxinil is a narrow-spectrum anthelmintic effective against a few roundworms (mainly blood-sucking species), against flukes (e.g. Fasciola hepatica) and against certain myiasis. It is not effective against tapeworms or most external parasites. It is used moderately in ruminants as an injectable, often mixed with other anthelmintics. It is not used in swine, poultry, horses or pets.

Dosing recommendations for NITROXINIL
CATTLE
Delivery Parasites Dose (against nitroxinil-susceptible parasites)
Subcutaneous Gastrointestinal roundworms 7-12.5 mg/kg
Subcutaneous Fasciola hepatica 12.5-13 mg/kg
Subcutaneous Parafilaria bovicola 20 mg/kg
SHEEP & GOATS
Delivery Parasites  Dose (against nitroxinil-susceptible parasites)
Subcutaneous Gastrointestinal roundworms 7-12.5 mg/kg
Subcutaneous Oestrus ovis 20 mg/kg
Subcutaneous Fasciola hepatica 10-15 mg/kg
SWINE
Delivery Parasites  Dose (against nitroxinil-susceptible parasites)
Subcutaneous Fasciola hepatica 10-13 mg/kg

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SAFETY

Oral LD50, rat, acute*: 170-450 mg/kg (various salts)
Dermal LD50, rat, acute*: not found
* These values refer to the active ingredient. Toxicity has to be determined for each formulation as well. Formulations are usually significantly less toxic than the active ingredients.

MRL (maximum residue limit) established for either beef, mutton pork or chicken meat*:

  • CODEX: No
  • EU: Yes
  • USA: No
  • AUS: No

* This information is an indicator of the acceptance of an active ingredient by the most influential regulatory bodies for use on livestock.

Withholding periods for meat, milk, eggs, etc. depend on delivery form, dose and national regulations. Check the product label in your country.

Learn more about nitroxinil safety (poisoning, intoxication, overdose, antidote, symptoms, etc.).

General safety information for antiparasitics is available in specific articles in this site (click to visit):

WARNING

It is obvious that veterinary products are not intended for and should never be used on humans!!!


MARKETING & USAGE

Decade of introduction: 1960
Introduced by: MAY & BAKER (→ RHÔNE-POULENC → SANOFI-AVENTIS - MERIAL)
Some original brands: TRODAX, DOVENIX
Patent: Expired (particular formulations may be still patent-protected)

Use in LIVESTOCK: Yes, scarce, in ruminants
Use in HORSES: NO
Use in DOGS and CATS: No

Main delivery forms: 

Use in human medicine: No
Use in public/domestic hygiene: No
Use in agriculture: No
Generics available:  Yes, a few


PARASITE RESISTANCE

In livestock: No.

Learn more about parasite resistance and how it develops.


SPECIFIC FEATURES

Nitroxinil is a low spectrum flukicide and nematicide not very much used on cattle, sheep and goats. It is available mostly in the form of injectables, often in combination with ivermectin.

In the EU is the only flukicide with an established MRL for bovine and ovine milk, i.e. it can be used on dairy animals respecting the withholding period established for each particular product.

It is not used in dogs or pets.

Efficacy of nitroxinil

Nitroxinil is highly effective against adult liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica ) and against late immature stages (> 6 weeks) in cattle.

It is also effective against a few gastrointestinal roundworms (e.g. Bunostomum spp, Haemonchus spp, Oesophagostomum spp, and Parafilaria bovicola) as well as against myiases caused by the sheep nasal bot fly (Oestrus ovis).

In contrast with many other anthelmintics (e.g. imidazothiazoles, benzimidazoles, tetrahydropyrimidines), nitroxinil has a residual effect, i.e. it not only kills the parasites present in the host at the time of treatment, but protects against re-infestation for a period of time (up to several weeks) that depends on the dose and the specific parasite.

Nitroxinil is not effective against rumen flukes (Paramphistomum spp), other roundworms such as lungworms (e.g. Dictyocaulus spp) or eyeworms (e.g. Thelazia spp), tapeworms and other external parasites.

Pharmacokinetics of nitroxinil

Injected nitroxinil binds very strongly and almost completely (>97%) to plasma proteins. Concentrations in blood are substantially higher than in the tissues.

Unchanged nitroxinil is excreted through the liver and this is why high concentrations are found in the bile ducts, the preferential sites of adult liver flukes. It is also metabolized in the liver parenchyma to a metabolite that has also flukicidal activity, which explains its efficacy against late immature flukes that migrate through the liver tissues.

Metabolism of nitroxinil is rather slow and occurs mainly in the liver. Excretion through feces and urine is quite slow as well, and takes about 30 days to be completed. Excretion half-life in sheep is about 8 days.

After oral administration, microorganisms in the rumen break it down to ineffective compounds. This is why injectables are preferred over drenches.

Mechanism of action of nitroxinil

Nitroxinil is an uncoupler of the oxidative phosphorylation in the cell mitochondria, which disturbs the production of ATP, the cellular "fuel". This impairs the parasites motility and probably other processes as well. 

Click here to view the list of all technical summaries of antiparasitic active ingredients in this site.

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