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This section of parasitipedia.net offers articles on general safety aspects of veterinary antiparasitics and specific safety summaries of those individual active ingredients that are more used in antiparasitics for dogs, cats, horses, livestock (cattle, sheep, goats, swine) and poultry.

Safety of veterinary antiparasiticsThe general safety aspects apply to all veterinary antiparasitics and explain the major safety concepts (e.g. tolerance, acute and chronic toxicity, safety margins, etc).

The following general articles are available (clik to visit):

The safety summaries of single active ingredients include information on acute toxicity, tolerance, safety margins, poisoning symptoms, antidotes, adverse drug reactions, side-effects, etc. They focus on the veterinary use of such active ingredients, not on possible human use (e.g. incidental poisoning of humans with such products), although sometimes their toxicological behavior can be quite similar in animals and humans. You can select one in the corresponding menu or from the table below. Such safety summaries do not replace the safety instruction printed in the label of each veterinary drug. And they must not be confused with the Material and Safety Datasheets (MSDS) officially issued by manufacturers for active ingredients and many other chemicals. MSDSs target safety during manufacturing, transport, storage and handling of such materials. The safety summaries offered in this site are a complement to the information on product labels and MSDS.

The information in the safety summaries has been extracted from numerous reliable sources, mainly (but not exclusively) from the databases of the Parasitology Institute at the University of Zürich (CliniPharm and CliniTox), the US National Pesticide Information Center, the European Medicines Agency, the EXTOXNET website (a common initiative of several US universities) and the INCHEM website (Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations).

The amount and the quality of safety data on parasiticidal active ingredients varies a lot. As a general rule, for old and vastly used active ingredients information is quite abundant, but sometimes confusing. The reason is that many studies have been done using different qualities of active ingredients, or different scientific protocols, etc. For very modern active ingredients reliable information is usually available in governmental sites of registration authorities (e.g. FDA, USDA, EMEA, APVMA, etc.).

The toxicity of pure active ingredients must not be confused with the toxicity of finished products (in this case parasiticidal drugs or pesticides). Finished products contain one or more active ingredients, but also other ingredients that can be relevant from the safety point of view.

LEGEND. (1) L=Livestock; P=Pets; E= Horses (C=Crop Protection; Hy=Domestic and Public Hygiene; H=Human; ) • (2) LD50: rat acute oral in mg/kg: the lower, the more toxic.

Active ingredient

Chemical class

Usage (1)

LD50 (2)  

Abamectin Macrocyclic Lactone LP (C, Hy) 10
Afoxolaner Isoxazoline P >1000
Albendazole Benzimidazole LP (H 1500
Amitraz Amidine L, PE (C 800
Carbaryl Organophosphate LP, E (C, Hy) 850
Chlorfenvinphos Organophosphate LP, E (C) 10
Chlorpyrifos Organophosphate LP, E (C, Hy) 135
Clorsulon Benzene-sulphonamide L >10000
Closantel Salicylanilides L 342
Coumaphos Organophosphate L, P, E (C, Hy) 15
Cypermethrin Synthetic Pyrethroid  L, P, E (C, Hy) 250-4150
Cyphenothrin Synthetic Pyrethroid P (C, Hy) 318-419
Cyromazine Development Inhibitor L, E (C, Hy) 3387
Deltamethrin Synthetic Pyrethroid L, P, E (C, Hy) 135-5000
Diazinon = Dimpylate Organophosphate L, P, E (C, Hy) 1250
Dichlorvos = DDVP Organophosphate  L, P, E (C, Hy) 59
Doramectin Macrocyclic Lactone L 50-2000
Emodepside Depsipeptide P NA
Eprinomectin Macrocyclic Lactone L  55
Etofenprox Synthetic Pyrethroid P (C, Hy) >2000
Febantel Pro-Benzimidazole L, P, E 1760
Fenbendazole Benzimidazole L, PE >10000
Fenthion Organophosphate L, P (C, Hy) 250
Fipronil Phenylpyrazole L, P (C, Hy) 97
Flubendazole Benzimidazole  L, P (H >5000
Flumethrin Synthetic Pyrethroid L, P, E >2000
Fluralaner Isoxazoline P >2000
Imidacloprid Neonicotinoid  L, P (C, Hy) 450
Indoxacarb Oxadiazine P (C, Hy) 179
Ivermectin Macr. Lactone  L, P, E (C, Hy, H) 25
Levamisole Imidazothiazole L, P (H 180
Lufenuron Development Inhibitor P (C) >3000
Mebendazole Benzimidazole L, P, E (H)   714-1434 
Metaflumizone Semicarbazone P (C, Hy) >5000
Milbemycin oxime Macrocyclic Lactone P >2000
Monepantel Amino-acetonitrile der. L  >2000
Morantel (tartrate) Tetrahydropyrimidine L, P, E ~580
Moxidectin Macrocyclic Lactone L, P, E 106
Niclosamide Salicylanilide L, P (H >5000
Nitenpyram Neonicotinoid P (C 1680
Nitroscanate Isothiocyanate  P 3503
Nitroxinil Halogenated phenol L 170-450
Oxantel Tetrahydropyrimidine P (H) 170-2400
Oxfendazole Benzimidazole L, P, E (H) >6400
Oxyclozanide Salicylanilide L 3519
Permethrin Synthetic Pyrethroid L, P, E (C, Hy, H 430-4000
Phenothrin Synthetic Pyrethroid P (C, Hy, H >5000
Phoxim Organophosphate   L (C >2000
Piperazine Piperazine derivative L, P, E (H) >7900
Praziquantel Isoquinoline L, P, E 2840
Propoxur Carbamate  L, P (C, Hy) 50
Pyrantel (tartrate) Tetrahydropyrimidine L, P, E (H 170
Pyriprole Phenylpyrazole P >300
Rafoxanide Salicylanilide L >2000
Sarolaner Isoxazoline P 783
Selamectin Macrocyclic Lactone P >1600
Spinosad Spinosyn  L, P (C, Hy, H) >3600
Trichlorfon = metrifonate Organophosphate L, P, E (C, Hy) 430-630
Triclabendazole Benzimidazole L (H) >8000

LEGEND. (1) L=Livestock; P=Pets; E= Horses (C=Crop Protection; Hy=Domestic and Public Hygiene; H=Human; ) • (2) LD50: rat acute oral in mg/kg: the lower, the more toxic.

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