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INDOXACARB: Safety Summary for Veterinary Use

WHO Acute Hazard classification of pesticides: II, moderately hazardous


Mechanism of action of Indoxacarb

  • Indoxacarb has a specific mode of action. It blocks the movements of sodium ions in certain nerve cells, which results in paralysis and death of the affected insects.
  • It has been shown that this mechanism is different from the one of other pesticides that also act on sodium transport in nerve cells (e.g. synthetic pyrethroids).


Acute Toxicity and Tolerance of Indoxacarb

  • LD50 acute, rats, p.o. 268 (♀)-1730 (♂) mg/kg
  • LD50 acute, rats, dermal >5000 mg/kg
  • As a general rule, dogs and cats tolerate topically applied indoxacarb very well.
  • In sub-chronic toxicity studies (90 days) on dogs, after oral administration (in the diet) of 1 to 18 mg/kg/day no clinical symptoms of toxicity were observed. Mild anemia and slightly reduced weight gains were recorded at the highest doses.
  • Usual therapeutic dose of indoxacarb (after topical administration as a spot-on) is 15 mg/kg in dogs and 25 mg/kg in cats.
  • Dogs and cats treated 8 times at up to 5x the recommended dose at 4-weeks intervals showed no toxic symptoms.
  • Puppies and kittens ≥8 weeks old treated 6 times at up to 5x the recommended dose at 2-weeks intervals showed no toxic symptoms.
  • As a general rule, young animals are more sensitive to overdosing and react stronger.

Toxic Symptoms caused by Indoxacarb Poisoning

  • In toxicity studies in rats, rabbits and dogs the following toxic symptoms were observed after heavy oral overdosing: weakness, depression, salivation (drooling), abnormal gait or movements, inability to stand, head tilting.

Indoxacarb Side Effects, Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) and Warnings

  • In some cats transient salivation (drooling), licking of the face and shaking of the head has been reported.
  • A possible administration error in dogs is partial administration to small dogs of spot-ons approved for large dogs.
  • A possible administration error in cats is partial administration to cats of spot-ons approved only for dogs.
  • Never use spot-ons for dogs on cats; never use spot-ons for large dogs on small dogs. It happens that some users want to save money buying large spot-ons for treating smaller dogs (or even cats!) twice or more times. The risk of overdosing is considerable, either due to erroneous calculations or to unskilled manipulation. In addition, dog medicines may sometimes contain other ingredients that are toxic to cats.

Antidote and Treatment of Indoxacarb Intoxication

  • There is no antidote for indoxacarb poisoning.
  • Treatment consists in preventing further exposure together with supportive and symptomatic measures.
  • To reduce exposure after spot-on treatment wash affected animals thoroughly with abundant lukewarm water and soap to remove the chemicals from the animal's hair coat.

Pharmacokinetics of Indoxacarb

  • After topical administration, indoxacarb remains mainly on the hair coat and skin of the treated pets. A small amount is also ingested through licking and/or grooming (particularly in cats).
  • Absorbed indoxacarb is extensively metabolized (>90%) in the liver to inactive metabolites. Excretion is mainly through the feces.

Environmental Toxicity of Indoxacarb

  • Indoxacarb is moderately to highly toxic to fish and invertebrates.
  • Indoxacarb shows low persistence in aquatic systems. It breaks down quickly when exposed to sunlight.
  • Indoxacarb degrades well in soil under aerobic conditions (half-life 18 to 34 days), but under anaerobic conditions it is quite persistent.
  • Indoxacarb does not bioaccumulate.
  • Correct use on dogs and cats is unlikely to result in any significant environmental pollution.

Additional information

Click here for a list and overview of all safety summaries of antiparasitic active ingredients in this site.

  • Indoxacarb belongs to the chemical class of the oxadiazines.
  • Indoxacarb is not used in livestock.
  • Indoxacarb is not used in human medicines.
  • Indoxacarb is used in crop pesticides.
  • Indoxacarb is used in public and domestic hygiene as a biocide.
  • Click here for General safety of antiparasitics for domestic animals.
  • Click here for General safety of antiparasitics for humans.
  • Click here for General safety of antiparasitics for the environment.
  • Click here for technical and commercial information on indoxacarb.

WARNING

If you intend to use a veterinary drug containing this active ingredient you must carefully read and follow the safety instructions in the product label.  Always ask your veterinary doctor, or pharmacist, or contact the manufacturer. Be aware that the safety instructions for the same veterinary medicine may vary from country to country.

The information in this page must not be confused with the Materials and Safety Datasheets (MSDS) officially issued by manufacturers for active ingredients and many other chemicals. MSDSs target safety during manufacturing, transport, storage and handling of such materials. This safety summary is a complement to the information on product labels and MSDS.

The toxicity of an active ingredient must not be confused with the toxicity of finished products, in this case parasiticidal drugs or pesticides. Finished products contain one or more active ingredients, but also other ingredients that can be relevant from the safety point of view.

All information in this site is made available in good faith and following a reasonable effort to ensure its correctness and actuality. Nevertheless, no this regarding guarantee is given, and any liability on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity is denied. Liability is also denied for any possible damage or harm to persons, animals or any other goods that could follow the transmission or use of the information, data or recommendations in this site by any site visitor or third parties.

 

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