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Introduction

The author has carried out a survey on the veterinary antiparasitics marketed in Latin America by the end of 2015. A total of 2602 antiparasitic products (ectoparasiticides, anthelmintics and endectocides) for livestock (including horses), dogs and cats have been reviewed, marketed by 173 animal health companies. The survey covers more than 90% of all the products available in the region. This article offers a summary of the results for dogs and cats obtained in this survey.


Animal Health Companies active in Latin America included in the survey

Six global multinational companies are included in the review: Bayer, Elanco, Merial, MSD Animal Health, Virbac, and Zoetis. These companies have been traditionally involved in the discovery and development of new endectocidal, ectoparasiticidal and/or anthelmintic active ingredients (excepting Virbac; Elanco only after acquiring Novartis AH).

The remaining 167 companies reviewed are mainly domestic companies and a few European ones that have established affiliates or subsidiaries in Latin America, e.g. Calier, Ceva, Bimeda, Fatro, Vetoquinol, etc. Antiparasitic products marketed by these companies in Latin America (not those marketed in Europe or elsewhere) have been included in this survey. Only companies with at least three antiparasitic products have been considered for this survey. Table 1 shows the number of companies in each of the major countries included in this survey, whereby many companies are active in numerous Latin American countries.

Table 1: Number of Animal Health companies active in Latin America reviewed
Country Companies Products Average
Argentina 41 648 16
Brazil 30 389 13
Colombia 29 330 11
Mexico 35 337 10
Peru 8 145 18
Uruguay 5 189 38
Rest 19 337 18
Multinationals 6 227 38
Total 173 2'602 15

Out of the recorded 2'602 antiparasitics, 1'906 are approved for use on livestock and 795 for use on pets, whereby numerous livestock products are approved for use on dogs and cats as well, particularly topical products (dips, sprays, dressings, etc.) as well as anthelmintic additives and drenches. The antiparasitics for use on livestock are analyzed in another article in this site (link).

From the 795 pet antiparasitic products recorded in this survey, only four contain an a.i. that is still patent-protected (afoxolaner, fluralaner, indoxacarb and pyriprole). This means that 99.95% all antiparasitics for use on pets in Latin America are basically generics.


Delivery forms of dog and cat antiparasitics by target species

Low-cost topicals (aerosols, baths, powders, shampoos, soaps, sprays, etc.) lead the number of pet antiparasitics in Latin America. This may reflect the fact that many people in Latin America just cannot afford the expensive once-a-month spot-ons, but also the fact that development of such low-cost topicals is also quite cheap for manufacturers. Second most numerous product category are oral solids (tablets, capsules, chewables, etc.) followed by oral liquids (suspensions, gels, etc.). The popularity of pet wormers in the form of oral liquids is one of the many differences between Latin America and other pet markets (e.g. USA, EU), where such products are rather unusual.

Table 2: Number of antiparasitic products for dogs & cats in Latin America, by delivery forms
Delivery forms Total* Dogs Cats
Additives ** 11 11  7
Collars 24 20 10
Dressings ** 60 59 12
Injectables 31 30 11
Low-cost Topicals (Shampoos, Soaps, Sprays)  ** 221 221  79
Oral Liquids (Suspensions, Gels) 160 158  105
Oral Solids (Tablets, Pills) 205 195  123
Spot-ons 100 81 45
Total 795 758  383

* Same product often approved for both dogs and cats; ** Most products approved also for use on livestock.


Chemical classes of dog and cat antiparasitics by target species

In pets, isoquinolines (praziquantel) are the most used chemical class of antiparasitics in Latin America. This reflects the fact that most pet wormers include praziquantel to ensure adequate tapeworm control. Second most used chemical class are the synthetic pyrethroids (SPs), which are use a lot in low-cost topicals and dressings. Third most used chemical class are the tetrahydropyrimidines (mainly pyrantel pamoate) abundantly used in pet wormers, both solids (tablets, chewables, etc.) and liquids (suspensions, gels, drops, etc.).

Table 3 summarizes the number of products for each chemical class and target species.

Table 3: Number of antiparasitic products for use on dogs and cats in Latin America, by chemical class
  Total* Dogs Cats
Total A.I.s
61 61 46
ENDECTOCIDES
Macrocyclic lactones 87 85 47
ANTHELMINTICS
Benzimidazoles 177 175 113
Imidazothiazoles 29 29 20
Isoquinolines 219 208 142
Salicylanilides 5 4 3
Tetrahydropyrimidines 207 196 110
Other anthelmintics
23 22 14
ECTOPARASITICIDES
Carbamates 41 39 30
Development Inhibitors 47 38 18
Formamidines 33 33 1
Neonicotinoids 62 46 27
Organophosphates 106 101 16
Phenylpyrazoles 46 44 34
Synthetic pyrethroids 208 208 40
Other Ectoparasiticides 18 18 5

* Same product often approved for more than one target species


Macrocyclic lactones (ML) used in dog and cat antiparasitics

Ivermectin is the most used ML a.i. in pets in Latin America. Interestingly, besides the oral delivery practiced everywhere in the world, up to 15 injectables and 3 spot-ons with ivermectin are approved for use on pets in Latin America. Interestingly too, domestic companies have not yet introduced generic versions of milbemycin oxime, moxidectin or selamectin for use on pets. 

Tables 4 and 5 show the number of products with MLs marketed in Latin America for pets found in this survey, Table 4 by target species, Table 5 by delivery form.

Table 4: Number of products with MLs used in dogs and cats in Latin America, by target species
Active ingredients Total* Dogs Cats
Abamectin 4 4 2
Ivermectin 77 75 42
Milbemycin oxime 3 3 1
Moxidectin 2 2 1
Selamectin 1 1 1
Total 87 85 47

  * Same product often approved for more than one target species

Table 5: Number of products with MLs used in dogs and cats in Latin America, by delivery form
Active ingredients Total Oral Solids Oral Liquids Injectables Spot-ons Dressings 
Abamectin 4 1 - 1 1 1
Ivermectin 77 43 12 15 3 1
Milbemycin oxime 3 3 - - - -
Moxidectin 2 - - 1 1 -
Selamectin 1 - - - 1 -
Total 87 47 12 17 6 2

 


Anthelmintic active ingredients used for dogs and cats in Latin America

Praziquantel is the most used pet anthelmintic in Latin America. The reason is that almost all pet wormers that ensure tapeworm control contain praziquantel, excepting a few ones with broad-spectrum benzimidazoles (albendazole, fenbendazole, etc.). Second most used anthelmintic a.i. is pyrantel (mostly pamoate), followed by fenbendazole. Interestingly, levamisole use in pets is quite frequent too in Latin America, in contrast with the USA and the EU, where levamisole is hardly used in pets.

Tables 6 shows the number of products with the most frequent anthelmintics marketed in Latin America.

Table 6: Number of anthelmintics products used for dogs and cats in Latin America
Active ingredients Total* Dogs Cats
BENZIMIDAZOLES
Albendazole 36 36 31
Febantel 46 46 16
Fenbendazole 67 65 45
Mebendazole 17 17 13
Oxfendazole 2 2 1
Oxibendazole 5 5 4
IMIDAZOTHIAZOLES
Levamisole 29 28 20
ISOQUINOLINES
Praziquantel 218 207 142
TETRAHYDROPYRIMIDINES
Oxantel 25 25 9
Pyrantel 181 171 101
OTHER CLASSES
Niclosamide 5 4 3
Piperazine 13 13 12

 * Same product often approved for more than one target species; many products with more than one active ingredient.

 


Ectoparasiticidal active ingredients used for dogs and cats in Latin America

Permethrin is the most frequently used a.i. in pet ectoparasiticides in Latin America, followed by cypermethrin. Both compounds are used in dozens of low-cost topicals (aerosols, baths, powders, shampoos, soaps, etc.) and dressings. Imidacloprid and fipronil are the next two a.i. most used in pet antiparasitics. They are used mainly in once-a-month spot-ons, but also in numerous low-cost topicals. The very abundant imidacloprid spot-ons with generic imidacloprid is also a rather particular feature of the Latin American market: such imidacloprid generics are very unusual in other major markets (Europe, USA, Australia, etc.).

The fact that numerous products containing SPs are approved for use on cats is rather surprising, since it is known that cats do not tolerate SPs.

Tables 7 shows the number of products with the most frequent ectoparasiticidal active ingredients marketed in Latin America.

Table 7: Number of ectoparasiticidal products used for dogs and cats in Latin America
Active ingredients Total* Dogs Cats
CARBAMATES
Carbaryl 21 21 14
Propoxur 20 20 16
DEVELOPMENT INHIBITORS
Fenoxycarb 8 4 5
Lufenuron 7 5 3
S-methoprene 21 18 8
Pyriproxyfen 8 8 2
FORMAMIDINES
Amitraz 33 33 1
NEONICOTINOIDS
Imidacloprid 61 45 26
ORGANOPHOSPHATES
Chlorpyrifos 22 22 4
Coumaphos 6 6 2
Diazinon 17 14 4
Dichlorvos 40 38 4
Trichlorfon 13 13 2
PHENYLPYRAZOLES
Fipronil 45 43 34
SYNTHETIC PYRETHROIDS
Cypermethrin 75 75 12
Deltamethrin 8 8 2
Flumethrin 7 7 1
Permethrin 95 95 18
Phenothrin 6 6 2
Tetramethrin 13 13 4

  * Same product often approved for more than one target species; many products with more than one active ingredient.

 

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