Brand: IO INCARCERATE
INDICATIONS: CATTLE & HORSES
PARASITES CONTROLLED (spectrum of activity)
- Biting and nuisance flies: stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), houseflies (Musca domestica) and synthetic pyrethroid susceptible buffalo flies (Haematobia irritans exigua), biting midges (Culicoides spp)
- Biting & sucking lice (incl. Damalinia = Bovicola bovis, Haematopinus eurysternus and Linognathus vituli).
- Biting flies: stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), buffalo flies (Haematobia irritans exigua).
- Culicoides brevitarsus (biting midges)
- Cattle & Horses: 5 ml product / 100 kg bw, equivalent to 0.75 mg deltamethrin / kg bw
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: 31-5000 mg/kg depending on the carrier (for the a.i.)
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: >2000 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: III, slightly hazardous
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on deltamethrin safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Cattle: Meat: NIL; ESI 21 days; Milk for human consumption: NIL
- Horses: NOT TO BE USED on horses that may be slaughtered for human consumption.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats. Synthetic pyrethroids are toxic to cats!
2nd-generation synthetic pyrethroids (e.g. cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, etc.) are irritant to the eyes and the skin, both of humans and livestock. The inert ingredients in the formulation may worsen this side effect. Irritation can be particularly problematic for dairy cows because it can significantly hinder handling for milking.
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES, resistance of houseflies as well as horn & buffalo flies to synthetic pyrethroids (incl. deltamethrin) is widespread worldwide and can be very high. Cases of resistance of stable flies and little house flies to synthetic pyrethroids have also been reported, but prevalence is usually low.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it can be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
- Macrocyclic lactones (e.g. doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin, etc.) only as pour-ons. Injectables and drenches are ineffective against most external parasites.
- Organophosphates (e.g. diazinon)
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as pour-ons, or may not be effective against all the concerned parasites.
This product is approved for the control of buffalo flies (Haematobia irritans exigua) susceptible to synthetic pyrethroids. Unfortunately, such susceptible flies have become quite rare in Australia and elsewhere. In fact, most products with synthetic pyrethroids similar to this one are no more approved for the control of buffalo flies on cattle.
It is surprising that this product should work against buffalo flies on horses. To our knowledge it has not been shown so far that those buffalo flies that land on horses are less resistant to synthetic pyrethroids than those than land on cattle. In fact, it would be a rather surprising and unique discovery.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: Australia
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES, but not in all countries. This brand itself contaisn generic deltamethrin.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic pour-on brands click here.
IO INCARCERATE Pour-on for Cattle & Horeses is one of the numerous insecticidal pour-ons for cattle and other livestock containing synthetic pyrethroids for the control of flies, lice, mites, ticks and other external parasites. Worldwide there are hundreds if not thousands of such pour-ons. Besides deltamethrin, numerous other synthetic pyrethroids are used in such pour-ons, e.g. cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, etc. They all have a similar spectrum of activity and a comparable safety profile.
Deltamethrin is last-generation synthetic pyrethroid introduced in the late 1970s (BUTOX by ROUSSEL-UCLAF → INTERVET → MERCK ANIMAL HEALTH). It has a broad-spectrum of activity against insects, ticks and mites. During the last decades of the last century it has been very much used against agricultural, domestic and veterinary pests. Nowadays usage has declined because numerous pests (e.g. cattle ticks, horn & buffalo flies, houseflies, sheep body lice, fleas, mosquitoes, cockroaches, etc.) have developed resistance to most synthetic pyrethroids (incl. deltamethrin).
All synthetic pyrethroids are veteran pesticides developed in the 1970s-1980s and are basically contact insecticides. This means that when the parasite comes in contact with it (e.g., during the blood meal, after landing on a treated host, etc), the active ingredient that impregnates the host's hair coat penetrates through the cuticle of the parasite (the "skin" of insects and other arthropods) into its organism and disturbs essential biological processes in the parasite's body, in this case its nervous system.
After administration to livestock or other animals, synthetic pyrethroids do not have a systemic mode of action, i.e. they are not transmitted to the parasite through the blood or the host. Topically administered synthetic pyrethroids are very poorly absorbed through the skin of the hosts, and what is absorbed is quickly broken down and/or excreted. Consequently the concentration reached in the blood is too low to kill blood-sucking parasites. But this is why they are considered rather safe for mammals, both humans and livestock (cats are an exception: pyrethroids are toxic to them!) and why they leave rather low residues in meat and milk.
All pour-ons containing contact insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids have the same weakness: they are applied on the back of the animal and spread more or less quickly along the hair coat to other parts of the body, but coverage is usually not homogeneous and some parts of the body are not or only poorly reached. How fast and complete the spreading is depends on a lot of factors (e.g. distance to the delivery point, rain, animal behavior such as grooming, licking, rubbing, etc.) but also on the inert ingredients in the formulation, which may or may not favor spreading. In any case, compared with the backline the concentration of the active ingredient will be significantly lower in body parts that are difficult to reach (e.g. udders, perineum, below the tail, inside the ears, etc), where parasites can survive because the concentration is not high enough to kill them. For this reason such pour-ons are mostly not effective enough against parasites such as ticks & fleas. Irregular spreading may also cause chronic exposure of some parasites to sub-lethal doses, which is known to favor development of resistance.
Control of susceptible (i.e. non-resistant) buffalo flies is usually good, because they spend a lot of time on cattle and thus are exposed to the insecticide for a long period of time. But as already mentioned, horn & buffalo flies have developed high resistance to all synthetic pyrethroids in Australia and elsewhere. Lice are also exposed to topical insecticides for a long period of time because they never leave the host. However stable flies bite the treated animal anywhere in its body and remain attached and thus exposed to the insecticide only during their blood meals that last a few seconds or minutes, which is often too short to kill them. Trying to control housefly populations with on-animal topical products is usually ineffective. The simple reason is that they spend most of their time off the animals.
It is useful to know that the active ingredients of many synthetic pyrethroids consist in a mixture of various optical isomers, typically those called "cis", and those called "trans", which have different efficacy and toxicity. Deltamethrin is an exception to this because it consists of a single isomer.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.