Brand: BOSS ® Injection
- Eprinomectin: 7 mg/mL (= 0.7%)
- Ivermectin: 7 mg/mL (= 0.7%)
- Levamisole phosphate: 223 mg/mL (= 22.3%)
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s):
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country differences may apply: read the product label!
- Gastrointestinal roundworms (mature and immature):
- Barber’s Pole Worm (incl. inhibited larvae): Haemonchus spp
- Small Brown Stomach Worm (incl. inhibited larvae): Ostertagia ostertagi, Ostertagia lyrata
- Black Scour Worm: Trichostrongylus longispicularis (adults only)
- Stomach Hair Worm: Trichostrongylus axei
- Small Intestinal Worm (incl. inhibited larvae): Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia punctata
- Thin-Necked Intestinal Worm: Nematodirus helvetianus (adults only)
- Large Bowel Worm: Oesophagostomum radiatum (adults only)
- Hookworm: Bunostomum phlebotomum
- Whipworm: Trichuris spp (only adults)
- Lungworms (adults and immature): Dictyocaulus viviparus.
- Sucking lice: Linognathus vitulli
RECOMMENDED DOSE *
- 1 ml product/35 kg, equivalent to: 200 mcg/kg bw eprinomectin, 200 mcg/kg bw ivermectin and 6.37 mg/kg bw levamisole posphate.
Read the product label for further details on dosing.
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats:
- Eprinomectin: 50 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- Ivermectin: 25 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- Levamisole: 180 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: New Zealand: 21 days.
- Milk for human consumption: New Zealand: Milk intended for sale for human consumption must be discarded during treatment and for not less than 35 days following the last treatment.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
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- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Unfortunately, resistance of several gastrointestinal roundworms to eprinomectin (and other macrocyclic lactones) and/or levamisole is already very high and very frequent worldwide in sheep and goats, less in cattle. Cases of multiple resistance (i.e. simultaneous) have also been reported. Most affected worm species in cattle are: Cooperia spp, Ostertagia spp, Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Oesophagostomum spp.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it may be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
Based on the very abundant and frequent use of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones (with cross-resistance to ivermectin) as well as of levamisole in livestock it must be assumed that resistance of these roundworms to this chemical classes will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
It is generally accepted that the use of mixtures of active ingredients with different modes of action against a given parasite can delay the appearance of resistance. But only if the concerned parasites are susceptible to all the actives in the mixture. If not, the mixture is likely to promote multi-resistant parasites, because the selection pressure against all actives remains in place. Mixtures such as this one may provide peace-of mind to those users that do not know the resistance status of worms in their property: at least one of the actives will work... This may be the case for a while. But the risk that some worm species become resistant to all components after a few years using the same or comparable mixtures is considerable. If it is not too late, a better alternative is to determine the resistance status in the property and to rotate among products (not mixtures) against which the worms have not yet developed resistance, stopping the use of those chemical classes that have already shown resistance problems.
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than ivermectin and/or levamisole.
- Nitroxinil (limited spectrum of activity).
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, e.g. morantel, pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity).
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity)
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as injectables.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: New Zealand
GENERIC BRANDS available? Not yet in this particular composition. This product contains itself generic eprinomectin, ivermectin and levamisole.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic injectable brands for livestock click here.
Eprinomectin is one of the last macrocyclic lactones introduced in the 1990s (by MERIAL). It was the first macrocyclic lactone approved for use on dairy cows because it does not leave significant residues in milk, in contrast with all ivermectin-based products. Nowadays other macrocyclic lactones (e.g. doramectin, moxidectin) have been approved for use on dairy cows in some countries. The spectrum of activity of eprinomectin is similar to that of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones: mainly roundworms, some lice and mite species and, delivered as a pour-on, also some fly and tick species. It is ineffective against tapeworms and flukes. Eprinomectin is moderately used in cattle but not in other livestock. It is marginally used in cats, but not in dogs or horses. It is not used in agriculture.
Ivermectin is a broad spectrum parasiticide with efficacy against internal parasites (mainly roundworms) and against external parasites as well (mainly mites, lice, grubs, etc). This is why it is called an endectocide (controls endoparasites and ectoparasites), as all macrocyclic lactones. Ivermectin was the first macrocyclic lactone discovered and introduced in the 1980s by MS&D AgVet. It is the parasiticide for livestock and pets most widely used worldwide, with probably thousands of generic brands. Ivermectin is probably the best veterinary parasiticide ever developed, highly effective against roundworms as well as against numerous external parasites (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc.). As all macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin used alone is ineffective against tapeworms and flukes, regardless of the delivery form. Ivermectin is massively used in livestock and horses, less in pets. It is also used in agriculture and against household pests.
Levamisole is a veteran anthelmintic introduced by JANSSEN already in the 1960s (NILVERM, RIPERCOL). It has a broad-spectrum of activity against roundworms (gastrointestinal and pulmonary) but no efficacy whatsoever against tapeworms and flukes. It is also completely ineffective against external parasites of livestock (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc). Levamisole has been used massively worldwide in countless generic formulations. It still remains one of the most preferred low-cost anthelmintics for livestock worldwide. It is only marginally used in horses and pets. It is not used in agriculture.
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