Eprinomectin is a macrocyclic lactone with a broad spectrum of activity similar to ivermectin. It is effective against roundworms (gastrointestinal, respiratory, renal, in the skin, etc.) and, depending on the delivery form and the dosage, also against a number of external parasites such as lice, mites and various myiasis. However, it is ineffective against tapeworms and flukes, and at the usual use recommendations it doesn't control fleas, stable flies, mosquitoes, horse flies, multi-host ticks (e.g. Amblyomma spp, Dermacentor spp, Haemaphysalis spp, Ixodes spp, Rhipicephalus spp, etc.) and several other external parasites.

Eprinomectin is moderately used in cattle, mainly in pour-ons and injectables, less in sheep. Use in cats as a spot-on (in combination with other actives) is still scarce. So far it is not used in dogs, swine, poultry or horses.. It is not used in crop protection pesticides.

In the last years eprinomectin has been increasingly used in some countries against cattle ticks (Boophilus = Rhipicephalus microplus) and horn & buffalo flies (Haematobia irritans). Against cattle ticks, both as an injectable (at 0.2 mg/kg) and as a pour-on (0.5 mg/kg) control is usually sufficient (>90%) but without knock-down effect, i.e. the treated animals need 7-10 days to become more or less tick free. Control of horn & buffalo flies is usually incomplete (<80%).

However, resistance of some parasites to all macrocyclic lactones is already very frequent worldwide and can be extremely high, particularly in gastrointestinal roundworms of sheep, goats and cattle.

The table below indicates some usual dosing recommendations for eprinomectin issued by manufacturers or documented in the scientific literature. They may not be approved in some countries.

Dosing recommendations for EPRINOMECTIN
Delivery Parasites Dose (against eprinomectin-susceptible parasites)
Topical (spot-on) Ancylostoma spp 0.5-1.6 mg/kg
Topical (spot-on) Toxocara cati 0.5-1.6 mg/kg
Topical (spot-on) Toxascaris leonina 0.5-1.6 mg/kg
Topical (spot-on) Dirofilaria immitis prevention
0.5-1.6 mg/kg once a month
Delivery Parasites Dose (against eprinomectin-susceptible parasites)
Subcutaneous (1-2%) Roundworms 0.2 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (1-2%) Dermatobia hominis 0.2 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (1-2%) Hypoderma spp 0.2 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (1-2%) Mites 0.2 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (1-2%) Lice 0.2 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (5%) Roundworms 1 mg/kg. Protection of up to 150 days against Dictiyocaulus, 120 days against Haemonchus, Oesophagostomum & Ostertagia, and 100 days against Cooperia & Trichostrongylus
Subcutaneous (5%) Hypoderma spp 1 mg/kg; longer protection than at 0.2 mg/kg
Subcutaneous (5%) Mites 1 mg/kg; longer protection than at 0.2 mg/kg
Topical (pour-on) Roundworms 0.5 mg/kg
Topical (pour-on) Dermatobia hominis 0.5 mg/kg
Topical (pour-on) Hypoderma spp 0.5 mg/kg
Topical (pour-on) Mites 0.5 mg/kg
Topical (pour-on) Lice 0.5 mg/kg
Topical (pour-on) Haematobia irritans 0.5 mg/kg; ~4 weeks protections
Topical (pour-on) Boophilus microplus 0.5 mg/kg; no knock-down effect. Control usually incomplete (75-85%). ~7 weeks protection.
Delivery Parasites Dose (against eprinomectin-susceptible parasites)
Topical (pour-on) Roundworms 1 mg/kg

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In most finished products, efficacy and safety depend not only on the amount of active ingredient(s) but also on their formulations (i.e. the type and amount of so-called inert ingredients), particularly in injectables and in topical pour-ons and spot-ons. These inert ingredients can significantly affect the pharmacokinetic behavior (e.g. absorption through the skin or from the injection site, distribution within the body, spreading throughout the body surface, etc.). Generic products usually contain the same amount of active ingredient(s) as the original product, but often in quite different formulations. In many cases, the curative (therapeutic) efficacy of the different formulations is quite comparable, but the protective (prophylactic) efficacy that determines the length of protection against re-infestations may be rather different.

Dosing recommendations for antiparasitics depend on national regulations. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasite. Check the labels of the products available in your country for specific information on approved indications.

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