Piperazine is an antiparasitic active ingredient used in veterinary and human medicine. It is used in dogs, cats and livestock against some internal parasites (mainly roundworms). It is not used against agricultural and household pests.

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Piperazine is a narrow-spectrum anthelmintic effective maily against gastrointestinal ascarids. It is ineffective against tapeworms, flukes or external parasites. Oral administration is the rule. It is used moderately in swine and poultry (mainly as feed additives) and horses, rather scarcely in pets and only marginally in ruminants.

Pure piperazine (so-called piperazine base) is unstable in water. For this reason it is mostly used in the form of certain salts: adipate, citrate, etc. Eficacy depends on the piperazine base content. Piperazine citrate contains 35% piperazine base; piperazine adipate 37%, etc.

Piperazine (incl. its salts) has almost no residual effect, i.e. it kills the parasites during a few hours after treatment but offers no significant protection against re-infestation.

Piperazine and pyrantel seem to be pharmacologic antagonists and should not be administered simultaneously.

The table below indicates some usual dosing recommendations for piperazine issued by manufacturers or documented in the scientific literature. They may not be approved in some countries.

Dosing recommendations for PIPERAZINE
Delivery Parasites Dose (against piperazine-susceptible parasites)
Oral (base) Ascarids (Toxocara, Toxascaris) 100-200 mg/kg
Oral (base) Uncinaria stenocephala
200-300 mg/kg
Oral (base) Ascarids (Toxocara, Toxascaris) 100-200 mg/kg
Oral (base) Gastrointestinal roundworms 110-300 mg/kg
Oral (base) Gastrointestinal roundworms 110-200 mg/kg
Oral (base) Gastrointestinal roundworms 110-200 mg/kg
Oral (base) Gastrointestinal roundworms 110-300 mg/kg; rep after 3 weeks if needed
Oral (base) Gastrointestinal roundworms 32 mg/kg in 2 consecutive feed servings, or in the water during 2 days.

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Dosing recommendations for antiparasitics depend on national regulations. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasite. Check the labels of the products available in your country for specific information on approved indications.

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