Brand: CYDECTIN ® Pour-on for Beef & Dairy Cattle
Company: ZOETIS / BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM / VIRBAC
(In Australia also red deer)
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- Gastrointestinal roundworms: Ostertagia ostertagi (adults, L4 & inhibited larvae), Ostertagia lyrata, Haemonchus placei (adults & L4), Trichostrongylus axei (adults & L4), Trichostrongylus colubriformis (adults & L4), Cooperia oncophora (adults & L4), Cooperia punctata (adults & L4), Cooperia pectinata (adults), Cooperia spatulata (adults), Cooperia surnabada (adults & L4), Oesophagostomum radiatum (adults & L4), Nematodirus helvetianus (adults & L4), Bunostomum phlebotomum (adults), Trichuris discolor (adults & L4).
- Lungworms: Dictyocaulus viviparus (adults & L4).
- Cattle grubs (warbles, parasitic stages): Hypoderma bovis, Hypoderma lineatum.
- Sucking & biting lice: Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus, Haematopinus eurysternus, Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis.
- Mites (scabies): Psoroptes ovis (syn. P. communis var. bovis), Sarcoptes scabiei, Chorioptes bovis.
- Horn & buffalo flies: Haematobia irritans irritans, Haematobia irritans exigua.
- Cattle ticks: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.
- Residual effect (significant country differences: read the product label!):
- Cattle: 500 mcg/kg bw, equivalent to 1 ml/10 kg (=22 lb) bw
- Read the product label for further details on dosing
* Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: 10000 mg/kg (estimate)
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: >100000 mg/kg (estimate)
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on moxidectin safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: USA NIL (do not use in calves to be processed for veal); Canada 15 (do not use in calves to be processed for veal); UK 14; Australia NIL.
- Milk for human consumption: USA NIL; Canada NIL; UK 6; Australia NIL.
The different withholding periods in various countries illustrate the fact that unfortunately, national regulatory authorities often draw different conclusions from the same scientific evidence. This has been always so and there are no indications that things will improve in the near future.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats.
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to macrocyclic lactones in sheep, goats and cattle has been reported in numerous countries. Most cases have been reported for ivermectin, and moxidectin often works well against ivermectin-resistant worms initially. But if moxidectin use continues, gastrointestinal roundworms will become resistant to it rather quickly. Based on the very abundant and frequent use of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones in livestock (with more-or-less cross-resistance to ivermectin) it must be assumed that resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to this chemical class will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it may be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than ivermectin
- Imidazothiazoles, mainly levamisole. etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than ivermectin
- Nitroxinil (limited spectrum of activity)
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, e.g. morantel, pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity)
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity)
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as pour-ons.
Resistance of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin, another macrocyclic lactone has been reported in several Latin American countries. It is not yet a widespread problem, but nevertheless a warning. Based on the intensive use of macrocyclic lactones on cattle it is only a matter of time for resistance of cattle ticks to these compounds to develop elsewhere unless specific resistance preventative measures (e.g. rotation, IPM, etc.) are taken.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: Worldwide, including the US, Canada, the EU, Australia, etc. Marketing of the CYDECTIN Pour-on for cattle (and other moxidectin formulations) is quite special. It is marketed by ZOETIS in the UK (and other EU countries) and New Zealand; by BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM in the USA and Canada; by VIRBAC in Australia, etc. Moxidectin, the a.i. of CYDECTIN was introduced by AMERICAN CYANAMID in the 1990s. After various subsequent acquisitions it landed in FORT DODGE, a part of WYETH, which was acquired by PFIZER. But PFIZER Animal Health already had its own livestock ML (doramectin), and two livestock MLs were obviously redundant. After their spin-off from PFIZER, ZOETIS has reasonably decided to get rid of CYDECTIN, at least partially and has sold or licensed it out to several companies. The current situation may change in the future.
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES, many brands in some countries (e.g. Australia), rather few, if at all, in other countries (e.g. the EU, USA). It happens that many Animal Health companies without an own macrocyclic lactone (ML) for livestock prefer generic ivermectin instead of moxidectin or other MLs. A simple reason is that ivermectin was the first ML that lost patent protection and became available in the generics market. Another one is that the offer of generic ivermectin is much higher and thus prices lower than for moxidectin or other MLs (e.g. doramectin, eprinomectin, etc.). Although moxidectin may have some advantages over ivermectin in particular markets (e.g. sheep scab control), ivermectin is often good enough for most indications.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic pour-on brands click here.
CYDECTIN Pour-on for cattle was the topical formulation of moxidectin that followed the 1% injectable launched by AMERICAN CYANAMID in the mid 1990s. After the tremendous success of ivermectin in the 1980s, all multinational Animal Health companies concentrated their efforts on discovering their own macrocyclic lactone comparable to ivermectin. AMERICAN CYANAMID was one of the few companies that made it (which was not enough to ensure it's survival...).
Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone introduced in the 1990s (by AMERICAN CYANAMID). It is moderately used in livestock and pets, but not in agriculture. Its spectrum of activity is similar to the one of ivermectin, i.e. basically roundworms and certain external parasites (mites, lice, etc.). As all other macrocyclic lactones moxidectin is not effective against tapeworms and flukes. Moxidectin is generally considered as more potent than ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock, particularly in sheep and goats, and against a few other livestock pests (e.g. sheep scab, cattle ticks, etc.). It is also less toxic than ivermectin, which makes it possible to use it at higher rates, particularly in long-acting formulations. Moxidectin is moderately used in livestock and horses, but rather scarcely in pets. It is not used in agriculture.
But it has also disadvantages. In several scientific studies it has been shown that ivermectin administered as a pour-on is not "automatically" absorbed through the skin. Licking (self licking or licking of other treated animals) may account for >50% of the total intake, compared with only about 10% absorbed directly through the skin. This is the reason why a dose of 500 mcg/kg bw is needed after pour-on treatment, compared with only 200 mcg/kg bw after injection. And it has been also shown that intake of topically administered active ingredient in some cattle may be twice as high as in other ones, all treated at the same rate. The reason is that individual cattle show a different licking behavior. An important practical consequence is that the quantity that is finally ingested and is therefore available for the control of gastrointestinal worms depends on the licking behavior of the treated animals. "High lickers" can be overdosed, whereas "low lickers" can be underdosed. And chronic underdosing of animals in a herd may enhance development of resistance to ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactone in gastrointestinal roundworms.
To our knowledge similar studies have not been carried out with the CYDECTIN Pour-on, but it must be assumed that the licking-behavior of cattle affects intake of moxidectin in a comparable way. A similar effect of the licking behavior on the intake of active ingredient after pour-on administration has also been shown for fluazuron, a tick development inhibitor.
Absorption through the skin is also negatively affected by the thickness of the skin and the hair coat, by dust and mud on the coat, by product lost on fences and yards, etc, factors that don't play a role after injection.
In contrast with the injectables, the pour-on formulation should not be administered to wet animals, and rain shortly before (up to 6 hours) or after administration can cause product run-off and thus under-dosing. The pour-on shouldn't be administered by strong winds that may blow away part of the product and/or contaminate the workers.
For these reasons efficacy after pour-on administration is usually less reliable than after injection.
Being an excellent antiparasitic, comparable to ivermectin, moxidectin does not control all parasites of livestock. Unfortunately advertising and even the label of some generic formulations in less developed countries often include unsubstantiated claims. To help preventing confusion and misuse it is useful to know that whatever moxidectin pour-on (without additional active ingredients) used at the recommended dose of 500 mcg/kg DOES NOT CONTROL:
- Ticks (e.g. Amblyomma spp, Rhipicephalus spp, Dermacentor spp, Haemaphysalis spp, Hyalomma spp, Ixodes spp, etc.)
- Flies other horn & buffalo flies (e.g. houseflies, stable flies, black flies, horse flies, etc.)
- Fleas (e.g. Ctenocephalides spp)
- Tapeworms (e.g. Moniezia spp)
- Flukes (e.g. liver fluke Fasciola hepatica)
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
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