Brand: LEVACIDE 7.5% Solution for Injection
FORMULATION: «injectable». To be administered by subcutaneous injection
ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S): levamisole hydrochloride: 75 g/L (= 7.5%)
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s): imidazothiazole
INDICATIONS: CATTLE & SHEEP
PARASITES CONTROLLED (spectrum of activity)
- Gastrointestinal roundworms (adults and L4 larvae): Haemonchus placei, Ostertagia ostertagi (excl. inhibited larvae), Trichostrongylus spp, Cooperia spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Nematodirus spp, Chabertia spp.
- Lungworms: Dictyocaulus viviparus.
- Cattle & sheep: 1 ml product/10 kg bw, equivalent to 7.5 mg/kg bw
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: for the a.i. 180 mg/kg.
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: n.a.
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on levamisole safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: UK: Cattle 28 days; Sheep 15 days.
- Milk for human consumption: Do not use in animals producing milk for human consumption.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs and cats
Risk of resistance? YES, in gastrointestinal roundworms in sheep (very high) and cattle (high) particularly in:
- Sheep: Haemonchus spp, Ostertagia spp /Teladorsagia spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Nematodirus spp, Chabertia ovina
- Cattle: Cooperia spp, Ostertagia spp
Resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to levamisole (incl. abamectin) in sheep, goats and cattle has been reported almost worldwide, including the USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. Based on the very abundant and frequent use of this compound in livestock it must be assumed that resistance of these roundworms to this chemical class will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it may be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
Alternative chemical classes/active ingredients to prevent resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms through product rotation:
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than levamisole.
- Derquantel: available so far only for sheep in combination with abamectin.
- Macrocyclic lactones e.g. abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin. Similar or even worse resistance problems than levamisole.
- Monepantel, only for sheep & goats in some countries (e.g. EU, Australia, New Zealand).
- Nitroxinil (limited spectrum of activity).
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, e.g. morantel, pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity).
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity).
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as injectables.
Learn more about resistance and how it develops.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed (maybe under another TM): UK, Ireland and other EU countries.
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES, but rather few injectables in most countries.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic injectable brands for livestock click here.
LEVACIDE 7.5% Solution for Injection for cattle & sheep from NORBROOK is one of the numerous wormers for livestock containing levamisole. However, levamisole injectables such as this one are nowadays rather unusual in Europe.
Levamisole is a veteran anthelmintic introduced by JANSSEN already in the 1960s (NILVERM, RIPERCOL). It shows broad-spectrum efficacy against roundworms (gastrointestinal and pulmonary) but no efficacy whatsoever against tapeworms and flukes. It is also completely ineffective against external parasites of livestock (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc). Levamisole has been used massively worldwide in countless generic formulations. It still remains one of the most preferred low-cost anthelmintics for livestock worldwide. It is less used in pets. It is not used in agriculture.
Levamisole has no residual effect, i.e. it kills the parasites shortly after administration, but does not significantly protect the animals against re-infestation by infective stages in their environment.
For livestock levamisole is mostly used in drenches for oral administration and also in a few pour-ons for topical administration. There are also numerous mixtures of levamisole with other active ingredients.
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional