Brand: CORAXIS ®
Company: ELANCO (BAYER)
FORMULATION: «spot-on» solution for topical administration on the back of the animals (also called pipettes, squeeze-ons, drop-ons, etc.)
ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S): MOXIDECTIN, 25 mg/mL (= 2.5%)
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s): MACROCYCLIC LACTONE
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
- Heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis), monthly heartworm prevention
- Roundworms: Ancylostoma caninum, (adults, immature adults and 4th stage larvae) Toxascaris leonina (adults), Toxocara canis, (adults and 4th stage larvae), Trichuris vulpis (adults), Uncinaria stenocephala (adults, immature adults and 4th stage larvae)
- Dogs, small >3 - 9 lbs bw (≈ 1.36 - 4.08 kg): 1 pipette with 0.4 mL (10 mg moxidectin), equivalent to 7.4 - 2.5 mg/kg moxidectin
- Dogs, medium 9.1 - 20 lbs bw (≈ 4.13 - 9.07 kg): 1 pipette with 1 mL (25 mg moxidectin), equivalent to 6.1 - 2.8 mg/kg moxidectin
- Dogs, large 20.1 - 55 lbs bw (≈ 9.12 - 24.95 kg): 1 pipette with 2.5 mL (62.5 mg moxidectin) equivalent to 6.9 - 2.5 mg/kg moxidectin
- Dogs, very large 55.1 - 88 lbs bw (≈ 24.99 - 39.92 kg): 1 pipette with 4.0 mL (100 mg moxidectin) equivalent to 4.0 - 2.5 mg/kg moxidectin
- Dogs, extremely large 88.1 - 110* lbs bw (≈ 39.96 - 49.90 kg): 1 pipette with 5.0 mL (125 mg moxidectin) equivalent to 3.1 - 2.5 mg/kg moxidectin)
*Dogs over 110 lbs. should be treated with the appropriate combination of CORAXIS tubes.
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: <2000 mg/kg (estimated according to LD50 of the a.i. = 106 mg/kg)
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: >5000 mg/kg (estimated according to LD50 of the a.i. >2000 mg/kg)
- Estimated Toxicity Class according to the WHO: not listed
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on moxidectin safety in this site.
WARNING !!!: Never use on cats pipettes approved only for dogs. Never use on small dogs pipettes approved for large dogs. Learn more about spot-ons and their safety.
WARNING on macrocyclic lactones. Dogs of some breeds do not tolerate macrocyclic lactones, including moxidectin, or other medicines (e.g. emodepside) that can cross the blood-brain barrier. They can suffer more or less serious adverse effects if treated at dose rates slightly higher than the recommended ones. Consequently dosing must be as accurate as possible. This is the case for Collies and related breeds, which have a mutation in the MDR-1 gene that affects the blood-brain barrier and makes it more permeable to such compounds than in dogs without this mutation. Besides Collies, other dog breeds have shown similar problems, although the MDR-1 mutation has not been confirmed in all of them. The breeds more affected by this mutation are (% frequency): Collie (70%), Long-haired Whippet (65%), Australian Shepherd (50%, also mini), McNab (30%), Silken Windhound (30%), English Shepherd (15%), Shetland Sheepdog (15%), English Shepherd (15%), German Shepherd (10%), Herding Breed Cross (10%). Other less affected breeds are: Old English Sheepdog, Border Collie, Berger Blanc Suisse, Bobtail, Wäller. The only way to be sure that a dog is affected or not is to test for it. As more dogs are tested it is likely that the mutation is discovered in other breeds, or that the frequencies change.
WARNING on heartworm prevention. Heartworm preventatives stop development of microfilariae to adult worms but do not cure infections with adult worms. These preventative medicines are different from those curative anthelmintics that kill the adult worms. Preventatives may kill a few adult worms, but won't kill all of them. If this happens, such dead worms may block lung vessels, which can be seriously harmful, even fatal for the pet. Consequently, heartworm preventatives are usually not administered to pets that are already infected with adult worms (hence the periodic diagnostic tests), because the risk of serious complications is real. The infection has first to be treated with adequate curative anthelmintics before preventative products are administered. This is however not trivial, and also risky for the same reason. Ask your veterinary doctor.
Most heartworm preventatives contain macrocyclic lactones at a dose that kills microfilariae and ensures adequate protection for about 1 month, i.e. treatment has to be repeated monthly. In endemic regions with mild to warm climate it is recommended to treat the pets during the whole year, because mosquitoes can be infective the whole year through.
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES, mainly in:
- Heartworm Dirofilatia immitis
There are reports of resistance or tolerance of heartworm microfilariae (Dirofilaria spp) to ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones in the USA (mainly in the South), probably including moxidectin as well. This has happened after about 20 years of very intensive use of such compounds there. This may happen elsewhere as well. Currently there are no other once-a-month treatments for heartworm prevention other than those containing macrocyclic lactones.
Learn more about resistance and how it develops.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**? GENERIC (introduced in the 1990s)
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
CORAXIS is an original brand from BAYER, basically the same as ADVOCATE (in some countries ADVANTAGE MULTI) without imidacloprid., i.e. without flea efficacy. Patent protection for moxidectin has expired.
COUNTRIES where this product is marketed (maybe under another TM): EU and other countries.
GENERIC BRANDS available? NO; so far there are no generic brands available with a similar composition and spectrum of activity.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
CORAXIS is a once-a-month heartworm preventative for dogs with moxidectin, from BAYER (now ELANCO).
Moxidectin, the active ingredient of CORAXIS, is a systemic macrocyclic lactone effective against heartworms and roundworms. It has no effect on fleas or ticks. Although administered topically (i.e. on the skin) it gets into the blood of the treated dog (transdermally through the skin or through licking) and reaches the parasites in the blood vessels, the digestive system or other tissues.
Moxidectin is a systemic macrocyclic lactone introduced in the 1990s (by AMERICA CYANAMID → FORT DODGE → PFIZER → ZOETIS) effective against heartworms and roundworms. It has no effect on fleas. Although administered topically (i.e. on the skin) it gets into the blood of the treated dog (transdermally through the skin or through licking) and reaches the parasites in the blood vessels, the digestive system or other tissues. It is moderately used in both pets and livestock. It is not used in agriculture or hygiene pesticides.
There are so far not many topical spot-ons products for heartworm prevention and roundworm control in dogs, in most countries only REVOLUTION (=STRONGHOLD) with selamectin, another macrocyclic lactone.
For an overview and a list of the most popular pet wormers click here.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
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In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.