Brand: CATEGO ®
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s):
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
- Ticks: Brown dog ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis), Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum), and Deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis).
* Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- Cats & kittens, >1.5 lbs bw: 1 pipette
* Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: n.a. for the formulation; 97 mg/kg (for fipronil); ≥2000 mg/kg for dinotefuran.
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: n.a. for the formulation; >200 mg/kg (for fipronil); ≥2000 mg/kg for dinotefuran.
- Estimated Toxicity Class according to the WHO: U unlikely to present acute hazard (learn more)
WARNING !!!: Never use on cats pipettes approved only for dogs. Never use on small dogs pipettes approved for large dogs. Learn more about spot-ons and their safety.
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES, low in fleas, mainly the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis.
So far there are no confirmed reports on flea resistance to dinotefuran. However, fleas have developed resistance to several other insecticides (e.g. carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) and are certainly capable of becoming resistant to dinotefuran as well. Consider also that dinotefuran belongs to the same chemical class as imidacloprid (ADVANTAGE, ADVANTIX, ADVOCATE from BAYER) and nitenpyram (CAPSTAR from ELANCO) and shows cross-resistance with these compounds.
There are only very few confirmed reports on flea resistance to fipronil, more than 25 years after its introduction for flea control. But there are rumors that the number of product failures is increasing, mainly in the US.
Fleas have developed resistance to several other insecticides (e.g. carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) and are certainly capable of becoming resistant to dinotefuran and fipronil as well. Experience shows that prolonged and uninterrupted use of any insecticide on fleas bears the risk of resistance development.
There are no reports on resistance of fleas to pyriproxyfen either.
This combination of three active ingredients of different chemical classes makes sense regarding resistance prevention, because it means attacking fleas through three different mechanisms of action, which is vastly assumed to help preventing or at least delaying resistance development.
Alternatives to prevent flea resistance through product rotation:
- Carbamates (F+T*), e.g. carbaryl, propoxur
- Indoxacarb (F*)
- Insect Development Inhibitors (F*), e.g. lufenuron
- Isoxazolines (F+T*), e.g. afoxolaner, fluralaner, sarolaner
- Macrocyclic lactones (F*), e.g. selamectin
- Organophosphates (F+T*), e.g. chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, diazinon, fenthion, etc.
- Pyrethroids (F+T*), e.g. cyphenothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, flumethrin, permethrin, etc. toxic to cats!
- Spinosyns (F*), e.g. spinetoram, spinosad
*F = effective against fleas; T = effective against ticks.
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as spot-ons.
Resistance of fleas to carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids is not uncommon in several countries, including the USA.
There are no reports on resistance
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
- Dinotefuran: ORIGINAL (introduced in the 2000s by MITSUI)
- Fipronil: GENERIC (introduced in the 1990s by RHÔNE MÉRIEUX)
- Pyriproxyfen: GENERIC (introduced in the 1980s by SUMITOMO)
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this product is marketed (maybe under another TM): USA.
GENERIC BRANDS available? NO
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
Administered about every 4 weeks, CATEGO controls established flea and tick infestations and prevents flea populations to develop in the pets environment, but only if all the dogs and cats in the same household are treated against fleas.
Dinotefuran is a broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide introduced in the 1990s (by MITSUI). It is used in agriculture and only rather scarcely in pets, but not at all in livestock. It is effective only against fleas, not against ticks.
Fipronil is a broad-spectrum insecticide and acaricide belonging to the phenylpyrazoles introduced in the late 1980s (by RHÔNE MÉRIEUX → MERIAL). It is effective against both fleas and ticks. It is massively used in pets and agriculture, and also moderately used against household pests and in some countries in livestock too.
Pyriproxyfen (Nylar) is a veteran insect development inhibitor introduced in the 1980s (by SUMITOMO) scarcely used in pets. Its only effect is to stop development of flea eggs and larvae. It has no protective effect whatsoever against adult fleas and is ineffective against ticks. The logic of combining it with dinotefuran and fipronil is to ensure that if a few fleas survive the killing effect of dinotefuran or fipronil (what usually happens) development of their offspring is inhibited, because the eggs of the surviving fleas will not complete development.
This combination of three active ingredients of different chemical classes makes also sense regarding resistance prevention, because it means attacking fleas through three different mechanisms of action, which is vastly assumed to help preventing or at least delaying resistance development.
- Most topical products kill or sterilize the parasites before they bite and suck blood on the pet, whereas systemic products kill or sterilize the parasites only after their blood meal.
- Topical products cannot be vomited.
- Spot-ons and collars are very convenient to administer.
- There is a larger choice of topical products.
But topical products have also some disadvantages:
- Topical products contaminate the pet's hair coat and it is advisable for children and also adults to avoid contact with the pet for several days after treatment.
- Topical products may not control parasites in some parts of the pet's body (e.g. the ears, below the tail, between the legs, etc.), whereas systemic products reach the blood-sucking parasites through the blood wherever they are.
- Efficacy of topical products may be reduced or shortened through exposure to dirt, sun, shampooing, washing, rain, baths, etc., whereas efficacy of systemic products is independent from these factors.
For an overview and a list of the most popular pet antiparasitics for flea, tick, lice and/or mite control click here.
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In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.