Brand: IMAX ® GOLD
Company: ELANCO (BAYER)
FORMULATION: «oral paste» in pre-charged syringes
- Ivermectin: 10 mg/mL (=1.0%)
- Praziquantel: 75 mg/mL (=7.5%)
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s):
- Ivermectin: macrocyclic lactone
- Praziquantel: isoquinoline
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- Large Strongyles: Strongylus vulgaris (adults and arterial larval stages), Strongylus edentatus (both adult and tissue stages), Strongylus equinus (adults) and Triodontophorus spp (adults)
- Small strongyles: Cyathostomum spp, Cylicocyclus spp, Cylicostephanus spp, Cylicodontophorus spp, Gyalocephalus spp, etc.
- Pinworms: Oxyuris equi (adult and immature)
- Ascarids: Parascaris equorum (adult and immature)
- Bots: Gasterophilus spp (oral and gastric stages)
- Hairworms: Trichostrongylus axei (adult)
- Intestinal Threadworms: Strongyloides westeri (adult)
- Large Mouth Stomach Worms: Habronema muscae (adult)
- Lungworms: Dictyocaulus arnfieldi (adult and immature)
- Small strongyles: Cyathostomum spp, Cylicocyclus spp, Cylicostephanus spp, Cylicodontophorus spp, Gyalocephalus spp.
- Tapeworms: Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana (adult, immature, heads, segments)
- Controls also skin lesions caused by cutaneous larvae of Habronema and Draschia spp. (summer sores), and Onchocerca spp microfilaraiae (cutaneous onchocerciasis)
*Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- 1 mL product per 50 kg bodyweight, equivalent to 200 mcg ivermectin/kg bw, and 1.5 mg/kg praziquantel/kg bw.
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: ~2500 mg/kg (estimate calculated according to the WHO based on the ivermectin LD50)
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Suspected poisoning? Read the articles on ivermectin safety and/or praziquantel safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- MEAT & OFFAL: 28 days. ESI: Not required
- MILK: Do not use in animals producing milk for human consumption
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES
- Small strongyles (cyathostomes). Tolerance of small strongyles to macrocyclic lactones (e.g. abamectin, ivermectin, moxidectin), manifested as a low but significant worm egg output after treatment (determined after fecal egg counts) is not yet widespread, but has been already reported (e.g. in the UK, Germany, Italy, the USA, and Brazil). In Australia tolerance (expressed as faster recommencing of egg shedding) has been observed.
- Parascaris equorum: Resistance to macrocyclic lactones (e.g. ivermectin, moxidectin) has been reported (e.g. in the USA, UK and Australia).
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it may be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
Alternative chemical classes/active ingredients to prevent resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms through product rotation:
- Benzimidazoles, mainly fenbendazole, mebendazole, oxfendazole, etc. But they also have similar or even worse resistance problems than macrocyclic lactones
- Imidazothiazoles, mainly levamisole. Not approved for use in horses in many countries.
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, mainly pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity), but resistance cases have also been reported (e.g. Australia, USA, Brazil, Japan).
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as oral drenches.
Learn more about resistance and how it develops.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this product is marketed: Australia
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES, by the dozens worldwide. This product itself contains generic ivermectin.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
This product is a classic oral drench for horses from BAYER (now ELANCO) with praziquantel and generic ivermectin.
Ivermectin is a broad spectrum parasiticide with efficacy against internal parasites (mainly roundworms) and against external parasites as well (mainly mites, lice, grubs, etc). This is why it is called an endectocide (controls endoparasites and ectoparasites). Ivermectin was the first macrocyclic lactone discovered and introduced in the 1980s by MS&D AgVet (later MERIAL). It is the parasiticide for livestock and pets most widely used worldwide, with probably thousands of generic brands. Ivermectin is probably the best veterinary parasiticide ever developed, highly effective against roundworms and, depending on the delivery form and formulation, also against numerous external parasites (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc.). It is effective against most species of roundworms that affect horses and against bots (Gasterophilus spp). As all macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin used alone is ineffective against tapeworms and flukes, regardless of the delivery form. It is massively used in livestock and horses, less in pets. Ist is also used as a human medicine, and against agricultural and household pests..
Ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones have about two weeks residual effect on horses because they are stored in body fat and progressively released. This, together with the time that worms need to develop inside the horse after infection (pre-patent period) allows to space the treatment intervals to 10 to 12 weeks in year-round control programs in many regions. For other active ingredients that have no residual effect such as fenbendazole, mebendazole, or pyrantel the treatment interval is usually 4 to 6 weeks.
Whereas in ruminants ivermectin administered at 200 mcg/kg controls a series of external parasites as well (mites, lice, etc.), such an indication is not approved in most countries in horses: external parasites have to be controlled with ectoparasiticides (e.g. pour-ons, sprays, etc.).
Praziquantel is a veteran anthelmintic introduced in the 1970s (by BAYER). It is highly effective against tapeworms (in horses mainly Anoplocephala spp) but has no efficacy whatsoever against roundworms. It is the anthelmintic most vastly used against tapeworms in horses and pets, used in hundreds of brands. It is hardly used in livestock. Praziquantel has no residual effect, i.e. it kills the parasites after administration but does not protect against reinfestation.
For an overview and a list of the most used oral drench brands click here.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.