Brand: CENTRAMAX Controlled Release Capsules
- Abamectin: 160 mg per capsule
- Albendazole: 4.62 g per capsule
- Minerals without anthelmintic efficacy: 24 mg Selenium & 120 mg Cobalt
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s):
PARASITES CONTROLLED (spectrum of activity)
For the treatment and 100 day control of sensitive strains of gastrointestinal roundworms and lungworms in sheep.
- Barber’s Pole Worm: Haemonchus contortus - including inhibited L4
- Small Brown Stomach Worm: Ostertagia circumcincta, O. trifurcata, including inhibited L4
- Stomach Hair Worm: Trichostrongylus axei - including inhibited L4
- Black Scour Worm: Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus vitrinus, including inhibited L4
- Small Intestinal Worm: Cooperia curticei, Cooperia oncophora
- Thin-Necked Intestinal Worm: Nematodirus spathiger, Nematodirus filicollis, including inhibited L4
- Large Mouthed Bowel Worm: Chabertia ovina
- Large Bowel Worm: Oesophagostomum venulosum
- Whip worm: Trichuris spp
- Intestinal Threadworm: Strongyloides papillosus
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- 1 sheep capsule per animal weighing 40 to 80 kg. 2 capsules for animals over 80 kg.
Read the product label for further details on dosing.
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats:
- Abamectin: 10 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- Albendazole: 2400 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: New Zealand 128 days
- Milk for human consumption: New Zealand: Milk intended for sale for human consumption mus be discarded for 128 days following the last treatment.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES
Unfortunately, resistance of several gastrointestinal roundworms to abamectin (and other macrocyclic lactones) and albendazole (and other benzimidazoles) is already very high and very frequent worldwide in sheep and goats. Double resistance (i.e. simultaneous) to two this two chemical classes is not unusual.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it can be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
It is generally accepted that the use of mixtures of active ingredients with different modes of action can delay the appearance of resistance. But only if the concerned parasites are susceptible to all the actives in the mixture. If not, the mixture is likely to promote multi-resistant parasites, because the selection pressure against all actives remains in place. Mixtures such as this one may provide peace-of mind to those users that do not know the resistance status of worms in their property: at least one of the actives will work... This may be the case for a while. But the risk that some worm species become resistant to all components after a few years using the same or comparable mixtures is considerable. If it is not too late, a better alternative is to determine the resistance status in the property and to rotate among products (not mixtures) against which the worms have not yet developed resistance, stopping the use of those chemical classes that have already shown resistance problems.
- Derquantel: available so far only in combination with abamectin.
- Imidazothiazoles, mainly levamisole. In numerous countries, with similar resistance problems as macrocyclic lactone and benzimidazoles.
- Monepantel: available only for sheep & goats in some countries (e.g. Australia, UK & EU, New Zealand). First cases of resistance reported in New Zealand in 2013.
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity).
- Tetrahydropyrimidines (e.g. morantel, pyrantel): effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms. Not available in some countries. Resistance to morantel has been reported in some countries.
- Nitroxinil: effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms (e.g. Bunostomum spp, Haemonchus spp, Oesophagostomum spp). Not available in some countries.
These alternative products may not be available in all countries or may not be effective against all the concerned parasites.
It is highly recommended to periodically check the resistance status of each property performing appropriate tests (e.g. fecal egg counts) under supervision of a veterinary doctor. Such tests are now routinely available for most producers in developed countries.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
- Abamectin: GENERIC (introduced in the 1980s)
- Albendazole: GENERIC (introduced in the 1970s)
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: New Zealand
GENERIC BRANDS available? Yes, a few in the form of capsules so far, but only in Australia and/or New Zealand.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used drench or capsule brands for livestock click here.
Abamectin, a veteran endectocide introduced in the 1980s (by MSD-AgVet), is considered as the "cheap" macrocyclic lactone. It is less potent and more toxic than ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones but is often "good enough", although usually with a slightly narrower spectrum of efficacy and shorter protection periods than other macrocyclic lactones. It is abundantly used in ruminants, much less in pig, poultry and pets. Abamectin is also used in agricultural and hygiene pesticides worldwide. Interestingly, abamectin is widely used in livestock in Australia and New Zealand but very rarely in the EU, the USA and Canada, if at all. As for other macrocyclic lactones, abamectin has no efficacy whatsoever against tapeworms and flukes.
Albendazole, another veteran anthelmintic (introduced in the 1970s by SMITH-KLINE) was the first benzimidazole with a broad-spectrum of activity, i.e. effective against all three major classes of parasitic worms: Roundworms (gastrointestinal and pulmonary), tapeworms, and flukes (only adults). Most other benzimidazoles are not effective against flukes, and the oldest ones are also ineffective against tapeworms. Albendazole also kills eggs of roundworms and flukes (ovicidal activity). All this made albendazole particularly popular for use on livestock. As other benzimidazoles, albendazole has no efficacy whatsoever against external parasites (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc). A significant disadvantage of albendazole is that it can be teratogenic (other benzimidazoles too, e.g. ricobendazole, parbendazole and cambendazole), i.e. it can cause malformations in the embryos and therefore should not be administered to pregnant animals. Albendazole is abundantly used worldwide in numberless generic brands for livestock, but significantly less for pets. It is not used in agriculture.
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
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