Brand: ALPHAEUS Antiparasitic Capsule
- Abamectin: 1.72 g per controlled relase capsule
- Levamisole hydrochloride: 1125 mg per immediate release primer tablet
- Oxfendazole: 679.5 mg per immediate release primer tablet
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s):
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country differences may apply: read the product label!
- Adult and immature gastrointestinal roundworms: Haemonchus spp, Ostertagia spp (incl. inhibited L4 larvae), Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus axei (incl. inhibited L4 larvae), Cooperia spp, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Trichuris spp (incl. inhibited L4 larvae).
- Lungworms: Dictyocaulus viviparus.
- Sucking lice: Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus.
- Mange mites: Psoroptes ovis.
- Aids in the control of
- Cattle 120 to 150 kg: 1 controlled release capsule + 1 primer dose tablet
- Cattle 151 to 300 kg: 1 controlled release capsule + 2 primer dose tablets
Read the product label for further details on dosing.
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats:
- Abamectin: 10 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- Oxfendazole: >6400 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- Levamisole: 180 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: New Zealand 180 days
- Milk for human consumption: New Zealand: Milk intended for sale for human consumption must be discarded during treatment and for not less than 180 days following the last treatment.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES
Unfortunately, resistance of several gastrointestinal roundworms to abamectin (and other macrocyclic lactones), oxfendazole (and other benzimidazoles) and levamisole is already very high and very frequent worldwide in sheep and goats. Cases of multiple resistance (i.e. simultaneous) to two or even three of these chemical classes have also been reported. Most affected worm species in cattle are: Cooperia spp, Ostertagia spp, Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Oesophagostomum spp.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it can be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
It is generally accepted that the use of mixtures of active ingredients with different modes of action against a given parasite can delay the appearance of resistance. But only if the concerned parasites are susceptible to all the actives in the mixture. If not, the mixture is likely to promote multi-resistant parasites, because the selection pressure against all actives remains in place. Mixtures such as this one may provide peace-of mind to those users that do not know the resistance status of worms in their property: at least one of the actives will work... This may be the case for a while. But the risk that some worm species become resistant to all components after a few years using the same or comparable mixtures is considerable. If it is not too late, a better alternative is to determine the resistance status in the property and to rotate among products (not mixtures) against which the worms have not yet developed resistance, stopping the use of those chemical classes that have already shown resistance problems.
- Salicylanilides (e.g. closantel): effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms. Not available in some countries. Resistance to closantel has been reported in some countries.
- Tetrahydropyrimidines (e.g. morantel, pyrantel): effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms. Not available in some countries. Resistance to morantel has been reported in some countries.
- Nitroxinil: effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms (e.g. Bunostomum spp, Haemonchus spp, Oesophagostomum spp). Not available in some countries.
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as capsules, or may not be effective against all the concerned parasites.
It is highly recommended to periodically check the resistance status of each property performing appropriate tests (e.g. fecal egg counts) under supervision of a veterinary doctor. Such tests are now routinely available for most producers in developed countries.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
- Abamectin: GENERIC (introduced in the 1980s)
- Oxfendazole: GENERIC (introduced in the 1970s)
- Levamisole: GENERIC (introduced in the 1960s)
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: New Zealand
GENERIC BRANDS available? Very few with this particular composition, if at all.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used drench brands for livestock click here.
Alphaeus Antiparasitic Capsule is a slow-release device from SIRONA combining 3 active ingredients with different modes of action against gastrointestinal worms: abamectin, oxfendazole, and levamisole hydrochloride. One or two primer tablets and the capsule are administered simultaneously. The primer tablet with levamisole and oxfendazole kills all stages of parasites that are already in the cattle. The capsule then slowly releases a daily dose of abamectin that kills the L3 larvae as they are ingested by the cattle preventing that they develop to adult worms, minimising damage to the host animal.
Abamectin, one of the first macrocyclic lactones developed, was introduced already in the 1980s (by MSD AGVET). As all macrocyclic lactones, abamectin is an endectocide, i.e. it is simultaneously effective against some external parasites and against internal parasites (mainly roundworms). As for other macrocyclic lactones, abamectin has no efficacy whatsoever against tapeworms and flukes. Abamectin is considered as the "cheap" ivermectin, with a similar spectrum of efficacy but less potent and slightly more toxic. It is abundantly used in ruminants, much less in pig, poultry and pets. Abamectin is also used in agricultural and hygiene pesticides worldwide. Interestingly abamectin is widely used on livestock in Australia and New Zealand but insignificantly in the EU, the USA and Canada.
Oxfendazole is a veteran benzimidazole introduced in the 1970s (by WELLCOME, SYNTEX). It has a broad-spectrum of activity against roundworms (gastrointestinal and pulmonary) and tapeworms (dose-dependent) but is ineffective against flukes. Oxfendazole also kills eggs of roundworms (ovicidal activity). As all benzimidazoles, oxfendazole has no efficacy whatsoever against external parasites (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc). Among the benzimidazoles oxfendazole is quite comparable with fenbendazole in terms of efficacy and safety. It is moderately used in livestock and horses, rather scarcely in pets, and not at all in agriculture.
Levamisole is the most veteran anthelmintic in this combination. It was introduced by JANSSEN already in the 1960s (NILVERM, RIPERCOL). It has a broad-spectrum of activity against roundworms (gastrointestinal and pulmonary) but no efficacy whatsoever against tapeworms and flukes. It is also completely ineffective against external parasites of livestock (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc). Levamisole has been used massively worldwide in countless generic formulations. It still remains one of the most preferred low-cost anthelmintics for livestock worldwide. It is only marginally used in horses and pets. It is not used in agriculture.
Oxfendazole and levamisole administered as a primer tablet act only immediately after administration and have no residual effect, i.e. they kill the parasites shortly after administration, but do not significantly protect the animals against re-infestation by infective stages in their environment. Whether such protection can be ensured by abamectin depends on the resistance status of the concerned worm species.
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
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