Brand: BRAVECTO ® PLUS
Company: MSD ANIMAL HEALTH = MERCK ANIMAL HEALTH
FORMULATION: «spot-on» solution for topical administration on the back of the animals (also called pipettes, squeeze-ons, drop-ons, etc.)
- FLURALANER: ~280 mg/mL (=28 %)
- MOXIDECTIN: ~14 mg/mL (= 1.4%)
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s):
- Fluralaner: ISOXAZOLINE
- Moxidectin: MACROCYCLIC LACTONE
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity):
- Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), Ticks (Ixodes ricinus): control of existing infestations and protection for up to 12 weeks.
- WORMS: Heartworm prevention (Dirofilaria immitis) for up to 8 weeks (not effective against adult heatworms); Roundworms (Toxocara cati, 4th stage larvae, immature adults and adults) & Hookworms (Ancylostoma tubarforme, 4th stage larvae, immature adults and adults).
EU and other countries
- Cats 1.2 to 2.8 kg bw: 1 pipette (0.4 mL) with 112.5 mg fluralaner + 5,6 mg moxidectin.
- Cats >2.8 to 6.25 kg bw: 1 pipette (0.89 mL) with 250 mg fluralaner + 12.5 mg moxidectin.
- Cats >6.25 to 12.5 kg bw:1 pipette (1.79 mL) with 500 mg fluralaner + 25 mg moxidectin.
- Cats >12.5 kg bw: use an adequate combination of the above pipette sizes.
- Corresponds to a dose of 40-94 mg fluralaner/kg body weight and 2-4.7 mg moxidectin/kg body weight.
- Read the product label for further details on dosing.
* Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: >5000 mg/kg (calculated from the LD50 for moxidectin=106 mg/kg)
- Estimated Hazard Class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
In September 2018 the FDA of the USA has alerted pet owners and veterinarians about potential neurological adverse events following the use of products containing isoxazolines. Some treated animals have experienced adverse events such as muscle tremors, ataxia (lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements), and seizures. This regards all products containing isoxazolines. Most treated animals will not show such adverse drug reactions, but some may be affected.
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on fluralaner safety and moxidectin safety in this site.
WARNING !!!: Never use on small cats spot-ons approved for large cats Learn more about spot-ons and their safety.
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance development? YES, very low in fleas, mainly in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis
Fluralaner has been recently introduced. It belongs to the isoxazolines (together with afoxolaner, sarolaner and lotilaner, the active ingredients of NEXGARD, SIMPARICA and CREDELIO, respectively), a new chemical class of insecticides and tickicides introduced in the 2010s. Isoxazolines have a mode of action that is different from all other insecticides currently used against fleas or ticks, and shows no cross-resistance with them. Consequently there are no reports on resistance to isoxazolines. However, fleas have developed resistance to several other insecticides (e.g. carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) and are certainly capable of becoming resistant to isoxazolines as well. Experience shows that prolonged and uninterrupted use of any insecticide agaiinst fleas bears the risk of resistance development.
Resistance of heartworms to macrocyclic lactones (incl. moxidectin) has also been reported in dogs in a few Southern States in the USA. It has not yet been reported in cats.
Alternatives to prevent resistance through product rotation:
- Carbamates (F+T*), e.g. carbaryl, propoxur
- Indoxacarb (F*)
- Insect Development Inhibitors (F*), e.g. lufenuron, methoprene, pyriproxyfen
- Macrocyclic lactones (F*), e.g. selamectin
- Neonicotinoids (F*), e.g. dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram
- Organophosphates (F+T*), e.g. chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, diazinon, fenthion, etc.
- Phenylpyrazoles (F+T*), e.g. fipronil, pyriprole
- Pyrethroids (F+T*), e.g. cyphenothrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, etofenprox, flumethrin, permethrin, etc. toxic to cats!
- Spinosyns (F*), e.g. spinetoram, spinosad
*F = effective against fleas; T = effective against ticks.
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as spot-ons.
Resistance of fleas to carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids is not uncommon in several countries, including the USA.
Learn more about resistance and how it develops.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
- Fluralaner: ORIGINAL (introduced in 2013, first described by NISSAN)
- Moxidectin: GENERIC (introduced in the 1990s)
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this product is marketed: EU
GENERIC BRANDS available? NO
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
BRAVECTO PLUS topical solution for cats is another fluralaner-based product from MSD, this one in combination with moxidectin to add anthelmintic efficacy. It offers up to 3-month protection against fleas and ticks (Ixodes ricinus, the main European tick that affects pets) together with a 2-month protection against heartworms.
Fluralaner is a broad-spectrum isoxazoline insecticide and acaricide introduced in the 2010s (by MERCK AH, licensed from NISSAN). It has a systemic mode of action, i.e. after oral or topical administration it gets into the blood of the pet and reaches the fleas and ticks during their blood meal. It starts to kill fleas about 8 hours and ticks about 12 hours after administration. Administered about every 12 weeks it kills attaching ticks and fleas and prevents flea population development in the pets environment, but only if all the dogs and cats in the same household are treated against fleas.
Moxidectin is a systemic macrocyclic lactone introduced in the 1990s (by AMERICA CYANAMID → FORT DODGE → PFIZER → ZOETIS) effective against mites, heartworms and roundworms. It has no effect on fleas. It is moderately used in both pets and livestock. It is not used in agriculture or hygiene pesticides.
The logic of the mixture with fluralaner is combining flea prevention with heartworm prevention in the same product, plus the added benefit of roundworm control.
Topical products (mainly spot-ons and insecticide-impregnated collars) have some advantages over systemic products (mainly tablets or chewables for oral administration and injectables):
- Most topical products kill or sterilize the parasites before they bite and suck blood on the pet, whereas systemic products kill or sterilize the parasites only after their blood meal.
- Topical products cannot be vomited.
- Spot-ons and collars are very convenient to administer.
- There is a larger choice of topical products.
But topical products have also some disadvantages:
- Topical products contaminate the pet's hair coat and it is advisable for children and also adults to avoid contact with the pet for several days after treatment.
- Topical non-systemic products may not control parasites in some parts of the pet's body (e.g. the ears, below the tail, between the legs, etc.), whereas systemic products reach the blood-sucking parasites through the blood wherever they are.
- Efficacy of topical products may be reduced or shortened through exposure to dirt, sun, shampooing, washing, rain, baths, etc., whereas efficacy of systemic products is independent from these factors.
For an overview and a list of the most popular pet antiparasitics for flea, tick, lice and/or mite control click here.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.