Spinetoram is an antiparasitic active ingredient used in veterinary medicine in cats against fleas. It is also used against agricultural pests. It belongs to the chemical class of the spinosyns.
Common name: SPINETORAM
Type: Pesticide or veterinary medicine, depending on usage
Chemical class: spinosyn
a mixture of 3'-O-ethyl-5,6-dihydro spinosyn J (left) and 3'-O-ethyl spinosyn L (right)
EFFICACY AGAINST PARASITES
Type of action: Contact and systemic insecticide
Main veterinary parasites controlled: fleas
Efficacy against a specific parasite depends on the delivery form and on the dose administered.
Click here for general information on features and characteristics of PARASITICIDES.
Spinetoram is exclusively used as a spot-on against fleas in cats. So far it is not used in dogs or livestock.
The table below indicates some usual dosing recommendations for spinetoram issued by manufacturers or documented in the scientific literature. They may not be approved in some countries.
|Dosing recommendations for SPINETORAM
|Delivery||Parasites||Dose (against spinetoram-susceptible parasites)
|Spot-on||Fleas||37,6-376 mg/kg, dep. on animal's weight|
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Dosing recommendations for antiparasitics depend on national regulations. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasite. Check the labels of the products available in your country for specific information on approved indications.
Oral LD50, rat, acute*: >5000 mg/kg
Dermal LD50, rat, acute*: >5000 mg/kg
* These values refer to the active ingredient. Toxicity has to be determined for each formulation as well. Formulations are usually significantly less toxic than the active ingredients.
MRL (maximum residue limit): Not applicable: not approved for livestock
Withholding periods for meat, milk, eggs: Not applicable: not approved for livestock
General safety information for antiparasitics is available in specific articles in this site (click to visit):
- General safety of antiparasitics for domestic animals
- General safety of antiparasitics for humans
- General safety of antiparasitics for the environment
Never use agricultural or hygiene products with this or any other active ingredient on livestock or pets, even if there are veterinary products with this same active ingredient approved for use on animals. The formulations for agricultural or hygiene use are different and may be toxic for livestock or pets.
It is obvious that veterinary products are not intended for and should never be used on humans!!!
MARKETING & USAGE
Decade of introduction: 2000
Introduced by: DOW AGROSCIENCES
Some original brands: DELEGATE, ASSURITY, CHERISTIN
Patent: Expired (particular formulations may be still patent-protected)
Use in LIVESTOCK: No
Use in HORSES: NO
Use in DOGS and CATS: Yes, still scarce, so far only in cats
Main delivery forms:
Use in human medicine: No
Use in public/domestic hygiene: No
Use in agriculture: Yes
Generics available: Very few
On pets: No
Spinetoram is a semi-synthetic derivative of spinosad, a natural insecticide extracted from cultures of Saccharopolyspora spinosa, a soil bacterium.
So far its only veterinary use is in cats in a classic spot-on for monthly treatment and prevention of flea infestations.
Pharmacokinetics of spinetoram
Spinetoram is only poorly absorbed through the skin of mammals (<5% in rats). Cats may ingest spinetoram through licking or grooming. Ingested spinetoram is quickly absorbed and rapidly distributed throughout the host's body. Maximum concentrations are found in the gastrointestinal tract, fat, carcass and liver. It is also quickly excreted, mainly in the form of various metabolites, 85% through feces, mostly during 24 hours after administration.
Mechanism of action of spinetoram
The molecular mechanism of action of spinetoram has not yet been completely elucidated. As other spinosyns it acts on both GABA and nicotinic receptors of the nerve cell membranes of insects, but it targets different subunits than other known insecticides. The good news is that spinetoram has no cross-resistance with other currently available chemical classes of insecticides.
Click here to view the list of all technical summaries of antiparasitic active ingredients in this site.