Brand: PIPERAZINE SOLUTION 45%

Company: PHARMACHEM


DELIVERY FORM: «feed additives and medicated feeds» for use in drinkung water.

ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S): piperazine (citrate) 450 g/L (= 45%)

CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s): piperazine derivative


INDICATIONS: POULTRY, SWINE, PIGEONS & CAGE BIRDS


PARASITES CONTROLLED (spectrum of activity)


RECOMMENDED DOSE

  • Pigs: 15mL product per 13.5 kg bodyweight. Add this amount to the water the pigs will drink in the morning. Give only medicated water until consumed and withold water the night prior to medication. Can be administered at above rates in mash or by individual drenching. Dose all in-pig sows 4 weeks before farrowing, all piglets from 5 weeks of age and all brought-in pigs. Repeat treatment at 1 to 2 monthly intervals.
  • Poultry. Dosage per 100 birds
    • Under 7 weeks of age: 42mL Piperazine in 2L water
    • 7 - 8 weeks of age: 56mL Piperazine in 2L water
    • 9 - 12 weeks of age: 56mL Piperazine in 4L water
    • 13 - 16 weeks of age: 56mL Piperazine in 6L water
    • 17 - 20 weeks of age: 80mL Piperazine in 10L water
    • Over 20 weeks of age: 80mL Piperazine in 10.5L water.
    • Provide according to number of birds in pen. When medicated water is consumed provide water for remainder of day. Do not provide plain water until medicated water is consumed. For use in wet mash: Mix according to dose rate table with sufficient water to prepare mash.
  • Pigeons: 20 mL product added to 1 L of water for one day. Depending o the severity of the infection birds may be wormed monthly. Do not provide plain water until medicated water is consumed. Repeat every 3-4 months.
  • Read the product label for specific detail on dosage.


SAFETY

  • LD50 (acute oral) in rats: >7900 mg/kg for piperazine
  • LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: n.a.

Suspected poisoning? Read the article on piperazine safety in this site.

Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)

  • Meat: AUS: NIL
  • Eggs for human consumption: NIL

WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats

You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:


RESISTANCE PREVENTION

Risk of resistance development? Low

There are a few old reports on resistance of pig or poultry roundworms to piperazine but it seems not to be a major issue in most places.

Learn more about resistance and how it develops.


MARKETING

Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?

  • GENERICS

*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.

COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: Australia
GENERIC BRANDS available? Yes, in most countries.

Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.

Click here for an overview on the most used antiparasitic feed additives and medicated feeds for livestock and horses.


COMMENTS

This product is a classic dewormer for swine, poultry, and other birds from PHARMACHEM based on generic piperazine.

Piperazine was already used as a human medicine at the end of the 19th century. Its anthelmintic properties for animals were discovered in the 1950's. It is still used in livestock and pets, although it has been vastly replaced with more effective compounds, especially in ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats). It is also used in anthelmintics for humans, but also in antidepressants, antihistamines, antipsychotics, etc. Piperazine derivatives are also used in plastics, resins, and other industrial materials, as well as an adulterant in the psychedelic drug scene.

Piperazine is a narrow-spectrum anthelmintic, effective almost only against ascarid roundworms (e.g. Ascaris suum, Ascaridia spp, Parascaris equorum, Toxocara canis, etc). It is still moderately used in swine, poultry, horses, dogs and cats because ascarids are often the most damaging worms in these species. It is hardly used in ruminants.

Piperazine as well as pyrantel and the benzimidazoles (e.g. fenbendazole, febantel, albendazole, mebendazole, etc.) has no residual effect, i.e. it acts against the worms during a few hours after administration but is quickly metabolized and excreted. For this reason treatment must often be repeated for certain indications. This is in contrast with wormers containing macrocyclic lactones (e.g. milbemycin oxime, selamectin) that ensure efficacy against numerous roundworms during weeks after a single treatment.


DISCLAIMER

This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics. 

Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.

In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.

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