Cypermethrin is an antiparasitic active ingredient used in veterinary medicine in livestock and pets against external parasites (lice, mites, fleas, flies, ticks, etc.). It is also used against agricultural and household pests. It belongs to the chemical class of the synthetic pyrethroids.
Common name: CYPERMETHRIN
EFFICACY AGAINST PARASITES
Type of action: Broad spectrum contact, non systemic ectoparasiticide: insecticide, acaricide, tickicide, louisicide, larvicide
Main veterinary parasites controlled: flies, ticks, mites, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, etc.
Efficacy against a specific parasite depends on the delivery form and on the dose administered. National regulatory authorities determine whether a product is approved for a given indication, i.e. use on a particular host at a specific dose and against a specific parasite. Check the labels of the products available in your country.
Click here for general information on features and characteristics of PARASITICIDES.
Click here to view the article in this site with the most common dosing recommendations for cypermethrin used in domestic animals.
Oral LD50, rat, acute*: 250 - 4150 mg/kg depending on the vehicle
Dermal LD50, rat, acute*: >4920 mg/kg
* These values refer to the active ingredient. Toxicity has to be determined for each formulation as well. Formulations are usually significantly less toxic than the active ingredients.
WARNING: Most synthetic pyrethroids are toxic for cats!
MRL (maximum residue limit) set for animal tissues (e.g. beef, mutton pork or chicken)*:
- CODEX: Yes
- EU: Yes
- USA: Yes
- AUS: Yes
* This information is an indicator of the acceptance of an active ingredient by the most influential regulatory bodies for use on livestock. MRL's for animal tissues may be set also for agricultural pesticides that are not approved for use on animals but are used on commodities fed to animals. A MRL may be also set in the form of an IMPORT TOLERANCE for active ingredients not approved in a particular country but approved for imported animal commodities.
Withholding periods for meat, milk, eggs, etc. depend on delivery form, dose and national regulations. Check the product label in your country.
Learn more about cypermethrin safety.
General information on the safety of veterinary antiparasitics is available in specific articles in this site (click to visit):
- General safety of antiparasitics for domestic animals
- General safety of antiparasitics for humans
- General safety of antiparasitics for the environment
Never use agricultural or hygiene products with this or any other active ingredient on livestock or pets, even if there are veterinary products with this same active ingredient approved for use on animals. The formulations for agricultural or hygiene use are different and may be toxic for livestock or pets.
It is obvious that veterinary products are not intended for and should never be used on humans!!!
MARKETING & USAGE
Decade of introduction: 1970
Introduced by: SHELL, ICI, CIBA-GEIGY
Some original brands: BARRICADE, STOCKADE, ECTOMIN, FLECTRON
Patent: Expired (particular formulations may be still patent-protected)
Use in LIVESTOCK: Yes, MASSIVE: cypermethrin is the ectoparasiticide most used on livestock worldwide.
Use in HORSES: Yes, abundant
Use in DOGS: Abundant
Main delivery forms:
- Premise and environmental treatment
- Shampoos, soaps, powders
Use in human medicine: No
Use in public/domestic hygiene: Yes
Use in agriculture: Yes
Generics available: Yes, NUMBERLESS
In livestock & horses: Yes, as for all synthetic pyrethroids: very frequent worldwide in such species as cattle ticks (Boophilus spp), horn flies (Haematobia irritans), sheep lice (Damalinia ovis), poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), houseflies (Musca domestica), mosquitoes.
In pets: Yes, quite frequent worldwide in dog and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides spp).
Cypermethrin is the ectoparasiticide most used in livestock worldwide. It is the generic ectoparasiticide par excellence. There are thousands of products, mainly dips, sprays and pour-ons. It is much less used in dogs: permethrin is often preferred in dogs.
Cypermethrin used in veterinary products can be of different "qualities" regarding the content of various optic isomers (cis or trans) that show different efficacy against parasites. You can learn more about such mixtures of various optic isomers in the article on synthetic pyrethroids. Some brands praise a high content of such active isomers: high-cis cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, beta-cypermethrin, etc. For most users, it often doesn't make any difference regarding efficacy, because if one product uses a mixture with more of the most effective isomers, it will be used at a lower concentration than a product using a mixture with less effective isomers. However, some isomers are significantly more toxic than other ones, and this can negatively influence the tolerance of livestock or pets to a particular product.
Efficacy of cypermethrin
Cypermethrin is an ectoparasiticide, i.e. active only against external parasites such as flies, ticks, mites, lice, fleas, mosquitoes, etc. It can be considered as a broad-spectrum generalist, i.e. quite good against almost all insects, ticks and mites, but not outstanding against a particular parasite. It is certainly less efficient against multi-host ticks (e.g. Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus, Ixodes, Dermacentor, etc.) than several other tickicides (e.g. amitraz, chlorfenvinphos, coumaphos, flumethrin, etc.).
As most synthetic pyrethroids, cypermethrin is a mediocre larvicide, i.e. it is often not a good option for the large-scale prevention of cutaneous myiases (e.g. screwworms, blowfly strike, etc.) with sprays, pour-ons, etc. However cypermethrin is often included in dressings for the therapeutic treatment on animal injuries already infected with fly maggots.
However, resistance to cypermethrin is widespread and can be very high in cattle ticks (Boophilus spp), horn flies (Haematobia irritans), red poultry mites (Dermanyssus gallinae), sheep lice (Damalinia ovis), houseflies (Musca domestica), dog and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides spp) and mosquitoes. As a consequence, products with cypermethrin are already totally useless against these important parasites in many places. The same applies to all other synthetic pyrethroids (e.g. deltamethrin, flumethrin, permethrin, etc.). And this is true for whatever delivery form: dipping, spraying, pour-ons, ear-tags, shampoos, soaps, etc.
Pharmacokinetics of cypermethrin
Topically administered cypermethrin remains mostly on the hair-coat of the treated animals and is very poorly absorbed through the skin. In contrast with natural pyrethrins and older synthetic pyrethroids cypermethrin is quite resistant to UV-light, which allows a residual effect between 5 and 10 days for most sprays and dips.
Treated animals can ingest cypermethrin through licking or grooming. A large amount of it is excreted unchanged through the feces. About 15% to 60% of the ingested cypermethrin can be absorbed to blood. The absorbed cypermethrin is quickly metabolized in the liver to inactive metabolites that are excreted through urine. This is done by a specific enzyme called glucuronidase. However, cats lack this enzyme and cannot metabolize synthetic pyrethroids. This is why most synthetic pyrethroids are toxic to cats.
As a general rule cypermethrin products are approved for use on dairy animals and on laying hens in many countries.
Mechanism of action of cypermethrin
Synthetic pyrethroids, including cypermethrin, have a similar mechanism of action as organochlorines. They act on the membrane of nerve cells blocking the closure of the ion gates of the sodium channel during re-polarization. This strongly disrupts the transmission of nervous impulses. At low concentrations insects suffer from hyperactivity. At high concentrations they are paralyzed and die.
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