Brand: CYDECTIN ® TRICLAMOX Pour-on Solution
FORMULATION: «pour-on» for topical administration. To be administered directly to the hair and skin along the midline of the back of the animal from the withers to the tail head. Apply to clean healthy skin.
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s):
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- Gastrointestinal roundworms: Ostertagia ostertagi (adults, L4 & inhibited larvae), Haemonchus placei (adults & L4), Trichostrongylus axei (adults & L4), Cooperia oncophora (adults & L4), Cooperia punctata (adults), Oesophagostomum radiatum (adults), Nematodirus helvetianus (adults & L4), Bunostomum phlebotomum (adults).
- Lungworms: Dictyocaulus viviparus (adults).
- Flukes: Liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica adults + immature stages.
- Sucking & biting lice: Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus, Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis.
- Residual effect:
- Moxidectin 0.5 mg/kg bw, and triclabendazole 20 mg/kg bw, equivalent to 1 ml product/10 kg (=22 lb) bw
- Read the product label for further details on dosing
* Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats:
- moxidectin: a.i. 106 mg/kg
- triclabendazole: a.i. > 5000 mg/kg
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats:
- moxidectin: a.i. >2000 mg/kg
- triclabendazole: a.i. > 4000 mg/kg
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: UK + EU countries 143 days
- Milk for human consumption: UK + EU countries do not use in cattle of any age intended to produce milk for human consumption.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats.
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance?
Resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to macrocyclic lactones in sheep, goats and cattle has been reported in numerous countries. Most cases have been reported for ivermectin, and moxidectin often works well against ivermectin-resistant worms initially. But if moxidectin use continues gastrointestinal roundworms will become resistant to it rather quickly. Based on the very abundant and frequent use of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones in livestock (with more-or-less cross-resistance to ivermectin) it must be assumed that resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to this chemical class will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than ivermectin
- Imidazothiazoles, mainly levamisole. etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than ivermectin
- Nitroxinil (limited spectrum of activity)
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, e.g. morantel, pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity)
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity)
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as pour-ons.
Liver flukes to triclabendazole: YES. Resistance of liver flukes to triclabendazole (and albendazole) in sheep was already discovered in the mid 1990's in Australia. Since then it has been reported in several other countries (e.g. New Zealand, UK, Ireland, Spain, Argentina), also in cattle (e.g. Australia, The Netherlands, Argentina). However, the incidence so far is not that serious as for roundworm resistance to benzimidazoles and other nematicides. Nevertheless, in certain regions products with triclabendazole may not protect livestock adequately against liver flukes.
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, may not be available as pour-ons, or may not have the same spectrum of efficacy as CYDECTIN TRICLAMOX.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it may be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: UK + other EU countries.
GENERIC BRANDS available? Not many in most countries, in this particular composition and as a pour-on. Several comparable combinations of triclabendazole with other macrocyclic lactones are more frequent, mainly as drenches.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic pour-on brands click here.
Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone introduced in the 1990s (by AMERICAN CYANAMID). It is moderately used in livestock and pets, but not in agriculture. Its spectrum of activity is similar to the one of ivermectin, i.e. basically roundworms and certain external parasites (mites, lice, etc.). As all other macrocyclic lactones moxidectin is not effective against tapeworms and flukes. Moxidectin is generally considered as more potent than ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock, particularly in sheep and goats, and against a few other livestock pests (e.g. sheep scab, cattle ticks, etc.). It is also less toxic than ivermectin, which makes it possible to use it at higher rates, particularly in long-acting formulations. Moxidectin is moderately used in livestock and horses, but rather scarcely in pets. It is not used in agriculture.
Triclabendazole is a narrow-spectrum benzimidazole introduced in the 1970s (by CIBA-GEIGY). It has no efficacy against roundworms or tapeworms. However it was and remains the only flukicide effective against adults as well as all immature stages of liver flukes, which are the most damaging stages due to their destructive migration through the liver tissues. For this reason it has been for decades and still remains the most widely used livestock flukicide worldwide. It is ineffectivy against any external parasites (ticks, flies, lice, mites, etc) of livestock. It is abundantly used in ruminants, but not in other livestock, horses or pets. It is also used in human medicines. It is not used in agriculture.
It is useful to know that pour-on administration of parasiticides has some disadvantages when compared with injectables and drenches. In several scientific studies it has been shown that ivermectin administered as a pour-on is not "automatically" absorbed through the skin. Licking (self licking or licking of other treated animals) may account for >50% of the total intake, compared with only about 10% absorbed directly through the skin. This is the reason why a dose of 500 mcg/kg bw is needed after pour-on treatment, compared with only 200 mcg/kg bw after injection. And it has been also shown that intake of topically administered active ingredient in some cattle may be twice as high as in other ones, all treated at the same rate. The reason is that individual cattle show a different licking behavior. An important practical consequence is that the quantity that is finally ingested and is therefore available for the control of gastrointestinal worms depends on the licking behavior of the treated animals. "High lickers" can be overdosed, whereas "low lickers" can be underdosed. And chronic underdosing of animals in a herd may enhance development of resistance to ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactone in gastrointestinal roundworms.
To our knowledge similar studies have not been carried out with the CYDECTIN Pour-on, but it must be assumed that the licking-behavior of cattle affects intake of moxidectin in a comparable way. A similar effect of the licking behavior on the intake of active ingredient after pour-on administration has also been shown for fluazuron, a tick development inhibitor.
It is likely that licking and grooming also plays an important role in the intake of triclabendazole administered as a pour-on to cattle. The higher dose of 20 mg triclabendazole/kg bw after pour-on administration when compared with the usual dose of 12 mg/kg bw after oral administration (drench) reflects the fact that absorption of triclabendazole through the skin is also significantly lower than after oral administration.
Absorption through the skin is also negatively affected by the thickness of the skin and the hair coat, by dust and mud on the coat, by product lost on fences and yards, etc, factors that don't play a role after injection. The pour-on formulation should not be administered to wet animals, and rain shortly before (up to 6 hours) or after administration can cause product run-off and thus under-dosing. The pour-on shouldn't be administered by strong winds that may blow away part of the product and/or contaminate the workers.
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
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