Brand: EPIMAX Pour-on
FORMULATION: «pour-on» for topical administration.
ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S): eprinomectin 5 mg/mL (=0.5%)
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s): macrocyclic lactone
INDICATIONS: CATTLE (beef & dairy) & DEER
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- Gastrointestinal roundworms (adults and L4 larvae): Ostertagia ostertagi (incl. inhibited larvae), Ostertagia lyrata (adults only), Haemonchus placei, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Bunostomum phlebotomum, Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia punctata, Cooperia surnabada, Nematodirus helvetianus, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Trichuris discolor (adults only), Trichuris globulosa (adults only),
- Lungworms (adults and L4 larvae): Dictyocaulus viviparus.
- Sucking & biting lice: Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus, Solenopotes capillatus, Bovicola (Damalinia) bovis
- Mites: Chorioptes bovis, Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis.
- Persistent acvtivity (country differences possible: read the product label):
- Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia spp, Oesophagostomum radiatum, up to 28 days.
- Cooperia spp, up to 21 days.
- Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Nematodirus helvetianus up to 14 days.
- Gastrointestinal roundworms: Ostertagia circumcincta, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Trichostrongylus axei, Oesophagostomum venulosum.
- Lungworms: Dictyocaulus viviparus.
*Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- 1 ml product per 10 kg bw, equivalent to 500 mcg/kg bw
Read the product label for further details on dosing.
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: ~55 mg/kg for the a.i.
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on eprinomectin safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Cattle: New Zealand: NIL
- Deer: New Zealand: 7 days
- Milk for human consumption: New zealand: NIL
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs and cats
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES, reported for ivermectin in gastrointestinal roundworms in cattle in several countries, particularly in the following worm species: Cooperia spp, Ostertagia spp, Haemonchus spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Oesophagostomum spp, whereby cross-resistance between eprinomectin and ivermectin must be assumed.
Based on the very abundant and frequent use of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones (with cross-resistance to ivermectin) in livestock it must be assumed that resistance of these roundworms to this chemical class will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
This means that if this product does not achieve the expected efficacy against the mentioned parasites, it may be due to resistance and not to incorrect use, which is usually the most frequent cause of product failure.
Alternative chemical classes/active ingredients to prevent resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms through product rotation:
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than ivermectin
- Imidazothiazoles, mainly levamisole. etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than ivermectin
- Nitroxinil (limited spectrum of activity)
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, e.g. morantel, pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity)
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity)
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as pour-ons.
Learn more about resistance and how it develops.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: New Zealand
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES. This product itself contains generic eprinomectin.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic pour-on brands click here.
EPIMAX Pour-on for cattle from NEXAN is a classic pour-on formulation containing eprinomectin. It is a generic version of EPRINEX (in some countries IVOMEC EPRINEX) from MERIAL.
Eprinomectin was one of the last macrocyclic lactones introduced in the 1990s (by MERIAL). It was the first macrocyclic lactone approved for use on dairy cows because it does not leave significant residues in milk, in contrast with all ivermectin-based products. Nowadays other macrocyclic lactones (e.g. doramectin, moxidectin) have been approved for use on dairy cows in some countries. The spectrum of activity of eprinomectin is similar to that of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones: mainly roundworms, lice and mites and, delivered as a pour-on, also some fly and tick species. It is ineffective against tapeworms and flukes. Eprinomectin is moderately used in cattle but not in other livestock. It is marginally used in cats, but not in dogs. It is not used in agriculture.
The major benefit of eprinomectin pour-on over all ivermectin pour-ons is its approval for dairy cows producing milk for human consumption. Otherwise it has a comparable spectrum of efficacy.
All pour-ons with macrocyclic lactones, including this one have general disadvantages compared with the corresponding injectables. In several scientific studies it has been shown that ivermectin administered as a pour-on is not "automatically" absorbed through the skin. Licking (self licking or licking of other treated animals) may account for >50% of the total intake, compared with only about 10% absorbed directly through the skin. This is the reason why a dose of 500 mcg/kg bw is needed after pour-on treatment, compared with only 200 mcg/kg bw after injection. And it has been also shown that intake of topically administered active ingredient in some cattle may be twice as high as in other ones, all treated at the same rate. The reason is that individual cattle show a different licking behavior. An important practical consequence is that the quantity that is finally ingested and is therefore available for the control of gastrointestinal worms depends on the licking behavior of the treated animals. "High lickers" can be overdosed, whereas "low lickers" can be underdosed. And chronic underdosing of animals in a herd may enhance development of resistance to ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactone in gastrointestinal roundworms.
To our knowledge similar studies have not been carried out with the eprinomectin pour-ons, but it must be assumed that the licking-behavior of cattle affects intake of eprinomectin in a comparable way. A similar effect of the licking behavior on the intake of active ingredient after pour-on administration has also been shown for fluazuron, a tick development inhibitor.
In contrast with the injectable formulations, the pour-on formulations should not be administered to wet animals, and rain shortly before (up to 6 hours) or after administration can cause product run-off and thus under-dosing. The pour-on shouldn't be administered by strong winds that may blow away part of the product and/or contaminate the workers.
For all these reasons efficacy after pour-on administration is usually less reliable than after injection.
Being an excellent antiparasitic, comparable to ivermectin, eprinomectin does not control all parasites of livestock. Unfortunately advertising and even the label of some generic formulations in less developed countries often include unsubstantiated claims. To help preventing confusion and misuse it is useful to know that whatever eprinomectin 0.5% pour-on formulation (without additional active ingredients) used at the recommended dose DOES NOT CONTROL:
- Most ticks (e.g. Amblyomma spp, Rhipicephalus spp, Dermacentor spp, Haemaphysalis spp, Hyalomma spp, Ixodes spp, etc.)
- Flies other than horn flies (e.g. houseflies, stable flies, black flies, horse flies, etc.)
- Fleas (e.g. Ctenocephalides spp)
- Tapeworms (e.g. Moniezia spp)
- Flukes (e.g. liver fluke Fasciola hepatica)
For an overview and a list of the most popular pour-ons for livestock click here.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional