Brand: MAXIMUS Long Acting Injection for Sheep
FORMULATION: «injectable» to be administered subcutaneoulsy at the base of the ear or high in the neck behind the ear.
ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S): moxidectin 20 mg/mL (=2.0%)
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s): macrocyclic lactone
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- Gastrointestinal roundworms (adults & L4 larvae): Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus rugatus (adults only), Trichostrongylus vitrinus (adults only), Teladorsagia/Ostertagia circumcincta, Ostertagia lyrata, Ostertagia trifurcata (adults only), Cooperia curticei , Cooperia oncophora, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Oesophagostomum venulosum (adults only), Nematodirus battus, Nematodirus filicollis, Nematodirus spathiger, Nematodirus helvetianus (adults only), Nematodirus abnormalis (adults only), Strongyloides papillosus, Chabertia ovina.
- Lungworms (adults & L4 larvae): Dictyocaulus filaria
- Nasal bots: Oestrus ovis (larval stages)
Mange mites: Psorergates ovis (itch mite)
- Residual effect (significant country differences: read the product label!):
- Haemonchus contortus ≥ 91 days
- Teladorsagia/Ostertagia circumcincta ≥ 91 days
- Trichostrongylus colubriformis: ≤ 49 days
- Sheep: 1 mg/kg bw, equivalent to 1 ml/20 kg bw
- Read the product label for further details on dosing.
* Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: 42 mg/kg (for the a.i., source MSDS)
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rats: >2000 mg/kg (for the a.i., source MSDS)
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on moxidectin safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: Australia 91 (ESI 133)
- Milk: Australia: Not approved. Do not use in female sheep which are producing or may produce in the future milk or milk products for human consumption.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats
Risk of resistance? YES, in gastrointestinal roundworms in sheep (very high), goats (very high) particularly in Haemonchus spp, Ostertagia spp /Teladorsagia spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Nematodirus spp, Chabertia ovina
Resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to macrocyclic lactones in sheep, goats and cattle has been reported in numerous countries. Most cases have been reported for ivermectin, and moxidectin often works well against ivermectin-resistant worms initially. But if moxidectin use continues gastrointestinal roundworms will become resistant to it rather quickly. Based on the very abundant and frequent use of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones in livestock (with more-or-less cross-resistance to ivermectin) it must be assumed that resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to this chemical class will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
Alternative chemical classes/active ingredients to prevent resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms through product rotation:
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than macrocyclic lactones
- Imidazothiazoles, mainly levamisole. etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than macrocyclic lactones
- Monepantel, only for sheep & goats in some countries (e.g. EU, Australia, New Zealand)
- Nitroxinil (limited spectrum of activity)
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, e.g. morantel, pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity)
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity)
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as injectables.
Learn more about resistance and how it develops.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: AUSTRALIA
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES in Australia, not in many other countries. It happens that many Animal Health companies without an own macrocyclic lactone (ML) for livestock prefer generic ivermectin instead of moxidectin or other macrocyclic lactones. A simple reason is that ivermectin was the first ML that lost patent protection and became available in the generics market. Another one is that the offer of generic ivermectin is much higher and thus prices lower than for moxidectin or other MLs (e.g. doramectin, eprinomectin, etc.). Although moxidectin may have some advantages over ivermectin in particular markets (e.g. sheep scab control), ivermectin is often good enough for most indications.
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic injectable brands for livestock click here.
MAXIMUS Long ActinG Injection for sheep is one of several Australian brands containing 2% moxidectin, in this case marketed by ANCARE.
Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone introduced in the 1990s (by AMERICAN CYANAMID). It is moderately used in livestock and pets, but not in agriculture. Its spectrum of activity is similar to the one of ivermectin, i.e. basically roundworms and certain external parasites (mites, lice, etc.). As all other macrocyclic lactones moxidectin is not effective against tapeworms and flukes. Moxidectin is generally considered as more potent than ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock, particularly in sheep and goats, and against a few other livestock pests (e.g. sheep scab, cattle ticks, etc.). It is also less toxic than ivermectin, which makes it possible to use it at higher rates, particularly in long-acting formulations. Moxidectin is moderately used in livestock and horses, but rather scarcely in pets. It is not used in agriculture.
The main benefit over the 1% moxidectin injectable (e.g. CYDECTIN, available for use on sheep in numerous countries) is the significantly longer protection against certain gastrointestinal roundworms. The main disadvantage is the very long withholding period of 3 months.
There are other formulations for topical (pour-on) and oral (drench) administration, mainly for cattle and/or sheep. So far there are no moxidectin products for use on swine.
Being an excellent antiparasitic, comparable to ivermectin, moxidectin does not control all parasites of livestock. Unfortunately advertising and even the label of some generic formulations in less developed countries often include unsubstantiated claims. To help preventing confusion and misuse it is useful to know that whatever moxidectin 2% injectable used at the recommended dose DOES NOT CONTROL:
- Ticks (e.g. Amblyomma spp, Rhipicephalus spp, Dermacentor spp, Haemaphysalis spp, Hyalomma spp, Ixodes spp, etc.)
- Flies (e.g. horn flies, houseflies, stable flies, black flies, horse flies, etc.)
- Biting lice Bovicola (Damalinia) ovis
- Fleas (e.g. Ctenocephalides spp)
- Blowfly strike of sheep
- Tapeworms (e.g. Moniezia spp)
- Flukes (e.g. liver fluke Fasciola hepatica)
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.