Brand: EXODUS Long Acting Injection for Sheep
Company: BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM (MERIAL)
PARASITES CONTROLLED* (spectrum of activity)
* Country-specific differences may apply: read the product label.
- Gastrointestinal roundworms (adults & L4 larvae): Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia spp, Ostertagia circumcincta, Ostertagia trifurcata, Trichostrongylus axei, Trichostrongylus spp,Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Nematodirus spp, Nematodirus filicollis, Nematodirus spathiger, Cooperia spp, Cooperia oncophora, Oesophagostomum venulosum, Strongyloides papillosus, Chabertia ovina, Trichuris ovis (adults only).
- Lungworms (adults & L4 larvae): Dictyocaulus filaria
- Nasal bots: Oestrus ovis (larval stages)
Mange mites: Psorergates ovis (itch mite)
- Persistent activity (significant country differences: read the product label!):
- Sheep: 1 mg/kg bw, equivalent to 1 ml/20 kg bw
- Read the product label for further details on dosing.
* Can be slightly different in some countries: read the product label!
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: 106 mg/kg (for the a.i. moxidectin)
- Estimated hazard class according to the WHO: not applicable for veterinary medicines
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on moxidectin safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) in days for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: New Zealand: Animals producing meat or offal for human consumption must not be sold for slaughter either during treatment or within 91 days of the last treatment.
- Milk: New Zealand: Milk intended for sale for human consumption must be discarded during treatment and for not less than 180 days following the last treatment.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs or cats
Risk of resistance? YES, very high in gastrointestinal roundworms in sheep & goats particularly in Haemonchus spp, Ostertagia spp /Teladorsagia spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Nematodirus spp, Chabertia ovina
Resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to macrocyclic lactones in sheep, goats and cattle has been reported in numerous countries. Most cases have been reported for ivermectin, and moxidectin often works well against ivermectin-resistant worms initially. But if moxidectin use continues gastrointestinal roundworms will become resistant to it rather quickly. Based on the very abundant and frequent use of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones in livestock (with more-or-less cross-resistance to ivermectin) it must be assumed that resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to this chemical class will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than macrocyclic lactones
- Derquantel: available so far only for sheep in combination with abamectin
- Imidazothiazoles, mainly levamisole. etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than macrocyclic lactones
- Monepantel, only for sheep & goats in some countries (e.g. EU, Australia, New Zealand)
- Nitroxinil (limited spectrum of activity)
- Tetrahydropyrimidines, e.g. morantel, pyrantel (limited spectrum of activity)
- Salicylanilides, e.g. closantel (limited spectrum of activity)
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as injectables.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: New Zealand
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES, many brands in some countries (e.g. Australia, New Zealand), rather few, if at all, in other countries (e.g. the EU, USA).
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used antiparasitic injectable brands for livestock click here.
EXODUS Long Acting Injection for sheep from BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM (MERIAL) is a classic injectable containing 2% moxidectin.
Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone introduced in the 1990s (by AMERICAN CYANAMID). It is moderately used in livestock and pets, but not in agriculture. Its spectrum of activity is similar to the one of ivermectin, i.e. basically roundworms and certain external parasites (mites, lice, etc.). As all other macrocyclic lactones moxidectin is not effective against tapeworms and flukes. Moxidectin is generally considered as more potent than ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock, particularly in sheep and goats, and against a few other livestock pests (e.g. sheep scab, cattle ticks, etc.). It is also less toxic than ivermectin, which makes it possible to use it at higher rates, particularly in long-acting formulations. Moxidectin is moderately used in livestock and horses, but rather scarcely in pets. It is not used in agriculture.
The main benefit over the 1% moxidectin injectable (e.g. CYDECTIN, available for use on sheep in numerous countries) is the significantly longer protection against certain gastrointestinal roundworms. The main disadvantage is the very long withholding period of 3 months.
Being an excellent antiparasitic, comparable to ivermectin, moxidectin does not control all parasites of livestock. Unfortunately advertising and even the label of some generic formulations in less developed countries often include unsubstantiated claims. To help preventing confusion and misuse it is useful to know that whatever moxidectin 2% injectable used at the recommended dose DOES NOT CONTROL:
- Ticks (e.g. Amblyomma spp, Rhipicephalus spp, Dermacentor spp, Haemaphysalis spp, Hyalomma spp, Ixodes spp, etc.)
- Flies (e.g. horn flies, houseflies, stable flies, black flies, horse flies, etc.)
- Biting lice Bovicola (Damalinia) ovis
- Fleas (e.g. Ctenocephalides spp)
- Blowfly strike of sheep
- Tapeworms (e.g. Moniezia spp)
- Flukes (e.g. liver fluke Fasciola hepatica)
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.