Brand: MOXIMAX SHEEP ®
DELIVERY FORM: «drench» for oral administration.
ACTIVE INGREDIENT(S): moxidectin 1 g/L (equivalent to 0.1%).
- This brand contains also 1.0 g/L IODINE, 0.2 g/L COBALT, 2.0 g/L COPPER, 0.6 g/L ZINC, 0.5 g/L SELENIUM: without anthelmintic efficacy.
CHEMICAL CLASS of the active ingredient(s): macrocyclic lactone
PARASITES CONTROLLED (spectrum of activity)
- Gastrointestinal roundworms, adults & 4th stage larvae: Haemonchus spp*, Ostertagia spp*, Trichostrongylus spp, Cooperia spp*, Nematodirus spp (adults only), Strongyloides papillosus (adults only), Oesophagostomum spp (adults only), Chabertia ovina, Trichuris ovis (adults only)
- * includes inhibited L4 larvae
- Lungworms: of Dictyocaulus spp.
- Residual effect: Prevents re-infection by Haemonchus contortus for 28 days and Ostertagia circumcincta for 21 days.
- Sheep: 1 ml product/5 kg bw (equivalent to 0.2 mg of moxidectin/kg)
- Read the product label for further details on dosing.
- LD50 (acute oral) in rats: 106 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
- LD50 (acute dermal) in rabbit: >2000 mg/kg (for the a.i.)
Suspected poisoning? Read the article on moxidectin safety in this site.
Withholding periods (=withdrawal times) for meat & milk (country-specific differences may apply: read the product label)
- Meat: New Zealand: 10 days
- Milk for human consumption: New Zealand: Milk intended for sale or human consumption must be discarded during treatment and for 35 days following the last treatment.
WARNING !!!: Never use on humans, dogs and cats
You may be interested in the following articles in this site dealing with the general safety of veterinary products:
- Safety for humans
- Safety for domestic animals
- Safety for the environment
- Hazard classifications of pesticides
Risk of resistance? YES, resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to macrocyclic lactones (incl. moxidectin) in ruminants is a very serious and increasing problem worldwide, particularly in sheep and goats. The most affected worm species are: Haemonchus spp, Ostertagia spp /Teladorsagia spp, Trichostrongylus spp, Nematodirus spp, Chabertia ovina.
Resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to macrocyclic lactones in sheep, goats has been reported in numerous countries. Most cases have been reported for ivermectin, and moxidectin often works well initially against ivermectin-resistant worms. But if moxidectin use continues, gastrointestinal roundworms will become resistant to it rather quickly. Based on the very abundant and frequent use of ivermectin and other macrocyclic lactones in livestock (with more-or-less cross-resistance to ivermectin) it must be assumed that resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms to this chemical class will continue spreading and strengthening in the future.
Alternative chemical classes/active ingredients to prevent resistance of gastrointestinal roundworms through product rotation:
- Benzimidazoles, e.g. albendazole, febantel, fenbendazole, oxfendazole, etc. Similar or even worse resistance problems than macrocyclic lactones.
- Levamisole. Resistance to levamisole has been reported in most countries, but is usually less strong and frequent than to macrocyclic lactones.
- Monepantel: available only for sheep & goats in some countries (e.g. Australia, UK & EU, New Zealand). First cases of resistance reported in New Zealand in 2013.
- Salicylanilides (e.g. closantel): effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms. Not available in some countries. Resistance to closantel has been reported in some countries.
- Tetrahydropyrimidines (e.g. morantel, pyrantel): effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms. Not available in some countries. Resistance to morantel has been reported in some countries.
- Nitroxinil: effective only against certain gastrointestinal roundworms (e.g. Bunostomum spp, Haemonchus spp, Oesophagostomum spp). Not available in some countries.
These alternative products may not be available in all countries, or may not be available as drenches, or may not be effective against all the concerned parasites.
It is highly recommended to periodically check the resistance status of each property performing appropriate tests (e.g. fecal egg counts) under supervision of a veterinary doctor. Such tests are now routinely available for most producers in developed countries.
Learn more about resistance and how it develops.
Are the active ingredients of this product ORIGINAL* or GENERICS**?
*Meaning that they are still patent protected and generics are not yet available
**Meaning that they have lost patent protection and may be acquired from manufacturers of generic active ingredients other than the holder of the original patent.
COUNTRIES where this brand/product is marketed: New Zealand
GENERIC BRANDS available? YES, a few brands in some countries (e.g. Australia & New Zealand); rather few, if at all, in other countries (e.g. the EU, USA).
Click here to learn more about GENERIC vs. ORIGINAL drugs.
For an overview on the most used drench brands for livestock click here.
MOXIMAX SHEEP is a classic drench brand from RAVENSDOWN containing 0.1% moxidectin.
Moxidectin is a macrocyclic lactone introduced in the 1990s (by AMERICAN CYANAMID). It is moderately used in livestock and pets, but not in agriculture. Its spectrum of activity is similar to the one of ivermectin, i.e. basically roundworms and certain external parasites (mites, lice, etc.). As all other macrocyclic lactones moxidectin is not effective against tapeworms and flukes. Moxidectin is generally considered as more potent than ivermectin against gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock, particularly in sheep and goats, and against a few other livestock pests (e.g. sheep scab, cattle ticks, etc.). It is also less toxic than ivermectin, which makes it possible to use it at higher rates, particularly in long-acting formulations. Moxidectin is moderately used in livestock and horses, but rather scarcely in pets. It is not used in agriculture.
In some countries there are also antiparasitic brands containing mixtures of moxidectin with other active ingredients.
In ruminants, reducing the amount of feed slows down the exit flow of the rumen and prolongs the time during which the active ingredient remains there and is absorbed. Consequently it is advisable to reduce the access of animals to feed (especially to fresh pasture, not to water) 24 hours before administration. For the same reason, it is better to keep the animals away from food for about 6 hours after drenching. However sick or weak animals should not be kept away from food and fasting animals should have access to water.
Click here for general information on good practices for the prevention and control of gastrointestinal worms in livestock.
This article IS NOT A PRODUCT LABEL. It offers complementary information that may be useful to veterinary professionals and users that are not familiar with veterinary antiparasitics.
Information offered in this article has been extracted from publications issued by manufacturers, government agencies (e.g. EMEA, FDA, USDA, etc.) or in the scientific literature. No guarantee is given on its accuracy, integrity, sufficiency, actuality and opportunity, and any liability is denied. Read the site's DISCLAIMER.
In case of doubt contact the manufacturer or a veterinary professional.